HETEROCHRONY AND DEVELOPMENTAL INNOVATION: EVOLUTION OF FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE ONTOGENY IN GNETUM, A HIGHLY APOMORPHIC SEED PLANT

@article{Friedman1998HETEROCHRONYAD,
  title={HETEROCHRONY AND DEVELOPMENTAL INNOVATION: EVOLUTION OF FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE ONTOGENY IN GNETUM, A HIGHLY APOMORPHIC SEED PLANT},
  author={William E. Friedman and Jeffrey S. Carmichael},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1998},
  volume={52}
}
Seed plant female gametophytes are focal points for the evolutionary modification of development. From a structural perspective, the most divergent female gametophytes among all seed plants are found in Gnetum, a clade within Gnetales. Coenocytic organization at sexual maturity, absence of defined egg cells (free nuclei are fertilized), lack of centripetal cellularization, and postfertilization development of embryo‐nourishing tissues are features of the female gametophytes of Gnetum… 

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