OBJECTIVE To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and the rate of HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in pregnant women attending Saint Camille medical centre (SCMC) in Ouagadougou. METHODS A total of 607 pregnant women, 16-45 years old, with <32 weeks amenorrhoea were screened for HCV and HIV using rapid tests. The majority of the women included in the study were previously known as HIV infected, as the centre is a reference centre for the programme of prevention against mother-to-child HIV transmission in the country. HCV RNA was extracted and quantified using the cDNA polymerase chain reaction with the nested primers at the 5' untranslated region. Transaminases were measured from plasma samples using spectrophotometric method. RESULTS Of women, 62.27% were infected with HIV. The prevalence of HCV was 2.14% in the screened pregnant women: 1.75% in HIV-negative women and 2.38% in HIV-positive ones. This prevalence is not significantly different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women (P = 0.81). HCV RNA was found in all women with anti-HCV. A significant transaminase increase was noted in women infected with HCV (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01 for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, respectively). Risk factors significantly associated with HCV positivity in pregnant women included transfusion and genital excision. In addition, the infection was linked with the educational level of the women. CONCLUSION The issue of this study revealed that effort should be made to promote safe medical practices and fight against women genital excision that are found to be the main risk factors associated with the HCV infection.