author={Taylor S. Feild and Timothy J. Brodribb and N. Michele Holbrook},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
Abstract The Winteraceae are traditionally regarded as the least-specialized descendents of the first flowering plants, based largely on their lack of xylem vessels. Since vessels have been viewed as a key innovation for angiosperm diversification, Winteraceae have been portrayed as declining relicts, limited to wet forest habitats where their tracheid-based wood does not impose a significant hydraulic constraints. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses place Winteraceae among angiosperm clades… 

The Ecophysiology of Xylem Hydraulic Constraints by “Basal” Vessels in Canella winterana (Canellaceae)

The results suggest that vessels of an ancestral design can be exported to dry environments and support the hypothesis that evolution of simple perforation plates, not vessels per se, represented a critical adaptation for producing large hydraulic gains during angiosperm evolution across a broader range of environments.

Early vessel evolution and the diverisification of wood function: Insights from Malagasy Canellales.

It is found that heteroxylly correlated with increased wood functional diversity related predominantly to biomechanical specialization, however, vessels were not associated with greater stem hydraulic efficiency or increased shoot hydraulic capacity.

Wood anatomy of the crown lineages in Proteoideae (Proteaceae): implications for evolution and adaptive value of bordered pits in imperforate tracheary elements

It is hypothesize that the larger rays in overground stems of sprouters serve as the sites of epicormic buds that provide for resprouting after fire or other damage, which may imply the transition from non-conducting imperforate tracheary elements to conducting elements in Mediterranean-type climatic regions.

10 A Functional Analysis of Podocarp Ecology

Viewed in terms of species diversity, the Southern Hemisphere conifer family Podocarpaceae is equivalent to its northern sister the Pinaceae. However, despite their similar age and common heritage

The evolution of angiosperm lianescence without vessels--climbing mode and wood structure-function in Tasmannia cordata (Winteraceae).

The results suggest that a key limitation for a vessel-less liana is that strong and low hydraulically conductive wood is required to meet the mechanical demands of lianescence.

Paleobotanical Evidence for the Origins of Temperate Hardwoods

  • M. DevoreK. Pigg
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    International Journal of Plant Sciences
  • 2013
It is suggested that on the basis of morphological features, temperate deciduous forest trees demonstrating seasonal heterophylly can be detected in the fossil record, and triggers such as photoperiod and changing temperature that today influence these plants were pivotal to the evolution of modern temperateDeciduous trees.

Ecology, forms and functions of the basal angiosperms from New Caledonia

The distribution of basal angiosperms in New Caledonia, as well as their drought sensitivity, support the hypothesis suggesting that early angios perms lived in humid and stable environments and that sympodial growth may have been acquired early during angiosPerms evolution.

Variation in angiosperm wood structure and its physiological and evolutionary significance.

In this chapter, the evolutionary significance of variation in angiosperm wood structure is interpreted with references to biogeography, phylogenetics, molecular development, ecophysiology and paleobotany.

Angiosperms at the edge: Extremity, diversity, and phylogeny.

The primary physiological and structural traits involved in response to cold- and drought stress are summarized, the phylogenetic distribution of these adaptations are outlined, and the recurring association of these changes with rapid diversification events that occurred in multiple lineages over the past 15 million years are described.



Xylem sap flow and stem hydraulics of the vesselless angiosperm Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae) in a Costa Rican elfin forest

It is shown that in a Costa Rican cloud forest, stem hydraulic properties, sapwood area- and leaf area-specific hydraulic conductivities of Drimys granadensis L.granadensis (Winteraceae) are similar to several co-occurring angiosperm tree species with vessels, suggesting that a putative return to a tracheid-based xylem in Winteraceae may not have required a significant loss of hydraulic performance.

Stomatal plugs of Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) protect leaves from mist but not drought.

It is shown that in Drimys winteri, a tree common to wet forests, these stomatal occlusions pose only a small fixed resistance to water loss and cuticular structures function to maintain photosynthetic activity under conditions of excess water on the leaf surface.

Evidence for and Implications of an Herbaceous Origin for Angiosperms

The Magnolialean hypothesis, which describes the ancestral angiosperm as a rhizomatous herb with small, simple flowers as in living herbaceous magnoliids such as Chloranthaceae and Piperaceae, is proposed.

The tortoise and the hare: ecology of angiosperm dominance and gymnosperm persistence

  • W. Bond
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1989
The regeneration hypothesis for gymnosperm exclusion by angiosperm exclusion is consistent with several aspects of the fossil record such as the early disappearance of gymnosperms from early successional environments where competition with angiosperms would have been most severe.

Reproductive biology in the primitive relic AngiospermDrimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae)

From field observations onDrimys brasiliensis, principally in the Botucatu region of São Paulo State, Brazil, new data on the reproductive biology, the rhythm of growth, and the development of

The Winteraceae of the Old World. I. Pseudowintera and Drimys — Morphology and taxonomy

The variability of the resulting very complex species Drimys piperita is described with the aid of a non-taxonomic subdivision and the fact that about twenty per cent of the specimens show varying combinations of specific characters is thought to be caused by hybridisation.


  • D. I. Axelrod
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1966
The fossil record suggests that the morphologic differences between the plants that contribute to these forests are the result of their independent evolution on opposite sides of the tropical rainforest belt during Cretaceous and later times, but evidence provided by plants living in environments where gradual gradients can now be observed between the evergreen and the deciduous habit is sought.

Are the angiosperms primitively vesselless

  • D. Young
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 1981
The hypothesis that angiosperms are primitively vesselless was tested in the context of a cladistic analysis of selected families of the Magnoliidae, Ra- nunculidae, and Hamamelididae and it is suggested that the xylem of these genera is paedomorphic.


Maximal resistance to winter freezing of trees of the South Temperate Zone, especially subalpine trees of Australasia, was assessed. Most of the tree species which grow in lower altitudes were

The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes

This study demonstrates that Amboreella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya represent the first stage of angiosperm evolution, with Amborella being sister to all other angiosperms, and shows that Gnetales are related to the conifers and are not sister to the angios perms, thus refuting the Anthophyte Hypothesis.