title={HARD TO PROVE},
  author={Filippa Lentzos},
  journal={The Nonproliferation Review},
  pages={571 - 582}
  • Filippa Lentzos
  • Published 12 October 2011
  • Political Science
  • The Nonproliferation Review
How can compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) best be ensured? The verification quandary—the difficulty in providing a high level of assurance that each state party is fully complying with its treaty obligations—has troubled the BWC since its inception in 1972. This article considers past difficulties in negotiating compliance monitoring provisions—such as states’ views on inspection procedures—and lays out short-, medium-, and long-term strategies to tackle what has been a… 
A Survey of Artificial General Intelligence Projects for Ethics, Risk, and Policy
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is AI that can reason across a wide range of domains. It has long been considered the “grand dream” or “holy grail” of AI. It also poses major issues of ethics,


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A brief history of the Convention is provided and an overview of its five Review Conferences; the 'Ad Hoc Group of Governmental Experts, open to all States Parties, to Identify and Examine Potential Verification Measures from a Scientific and Technical Standpoint'; and efforts to develop a legally binding instrument to strengthen the Convention are presented.
Convention on the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons and on their destruction
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  • Political Science
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Determined to act with a view to achieving effective progress towards general and complete disarmament, including the prohibition and elimination of all types of weapons of mass destruction, and
Indeed, the impression that one might obtain from reading media reports is that a verification protocol for the BWC would have been agreed if the United States had been prepared to accept it
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