Gynostemium structure and relationships of theCorallorhizinae (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae)

  title={Gynostemium structure and relationships of theCorallorhizinae (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae)},
  author={John V Freudenstein},
  journal={Plant Systematics and Evolution},
  • J. Freudenstein
  • Published 1 March 1994
  • Biology
  • Plant Systematics and Evolution
Several types of pollinium stalk are present in theCorallorhizinae. Govenia has a cellular epidermal pollinium stalk, whileTipularia has a unique stipe that results from prolongation and detachment of the rostellum.Dactylostalix andEphippianthus have no stipe, but do have a detachable viscidium.Aplectrum, Corallorhiza, Cremastra, andOreorchis have hamuli. Cladistic analysis of morphological characters suggests that these four genera form a “core”Corallorhizinae, and are sister group to a clade… 
A Reanalysis of Relationships Among Calypsoinae (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae): Floral and Vegetative Evolution and the Placement of Yoania
Biogeographic analysis suggests a New World origin for the Calypsoinae subtribe, with two major shifts to the Old World and one shift back to the New World.
Relationships and evolution of matK in a group of leafless orchids (Corallorhiza and Corallorhizinae; Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae).
Corallorhizinae are a small group of Old and New World temperate orchids of which a core monophyletic group comprises Govenia, Cremastra, Aplectrum, Oreorchis and the leafless Corallorhiza, and which
Variation and evolutionary transformation of some characters of the pollinarium and pistil in Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae)
The results suggest that the common ancestor of Epidendroideae had a complete pollinarium, formed probably of four juxtaposed granular pollinia without suture, bearing caudicle, tegular stipe and viscidium, but several early transformations occurred during the Epid endocrinological diversification.
Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae)
Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly Trichoglottis and Phalaenopsis alliances and transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the Subtribe Aeridinae than those of pollinium.
Anther development in tribe Epidendreae: orchids with contrasting pollination syndromes
Observations indicate that the position of Chysis in subtribe Bletiinae needs revision based on differences in a number floral, and in particular of anther characters; and that Coelia only shares the early anther incumbency with Calypsoinae members, but not the rest of floral and antherCharacters.
Phylogenetic relationships and character evolution in Govenia (Orchidaceae)
The evolution of eight vegetative and floral characters is explored and explained in relation to pollination syndrome and Govenia is corroborated as monophyletic with six recognized groups.
The evolution of anther morphology in orchids: incumbent anthers, superposed pollinia, and the vandoid complex.
Analysis of variation in anther and pollinium orientation in Epidendroideae and Vanilloideae using anatomical sections of columns at successive ontogenetic stages and related the observed changes to the final anther morphology to reexamine the homology hypotheses for these characters suggest heterochronic changes in these characters.
A New Orchid Genus, Danxiaorchis, and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Tribe Calypsoeae
Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses, Calypsoeae, under which the new orchid is classified, represents an independent lineage in the Epidendroideae subfamily, and is a monophyletic tribe consisting of eight well-supported clades with 13 subclades (genera), which are all in agreement with the phytogeography of Calyp soeae.
Cremastra malipoensis (Orchidaceae), a New Species from Yunnan, China
Abstract Cremastra malipoensis G. W. Hu, a new rare species of Orchidaceae, is described and illustrated, and a taxonomic key to the species of the genus is provided. It occurs in southeastern
The structure and function of orchid pollinaria
Pollinaria ensure that large pollen loads are deposited on the stigma, thus enabling the fertilization of the large numbers of ovules in the flowers of Orchidaceae, and ensure efficient removal from the anther, minimal pollen wastage during transit, and a high probability of deposition on conspecific stigmas.


Endothecial cell thickenings were examined in anther macerations of representative species from 210 genera of the Orchidaceae. Nearly all species examined possessed the characteristic thickened walls
A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae
The cladogram was used to develop a classification and a natural key to the tribes of the Orchidaceae, and the phylogeny and classification presented here are hypotheses of relationship and are therefore subject to change as more information becomes available.
Seed Morphology in the Oncidiinae and Related Subtribes (Orchidaceae)
A survey of seed morphology, using scanning electron microscopy, of the Oncidiinae and related Neotropical subtribes found that the majority of these taxa exhibit a uniform seed condition, designated
Classification and Phylogeny in the Orchidacea
The nomenclature of tribes and subtribes in the Orchidaceae is reviewed, and a different delineation of the Neottie and Epidendreae is proposed, and the need for further revision is recognized.
Seed morphology in Southern AfricanOrchidoideae (Orchidaceae)
  • H. Kurzweil
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Plant Systematics and Evolution
  • 2004
The seed morphology of 151 species of Southern AfricanOrchidoideae (Orchideae andDiseae; sensuDressler 1981) was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and a remarkably different seed type was observed in Disa uniflora and three apparently closely related species, suggested to have evolved in adaptation to the specialized habitat alongside streams.
The gynostemium of Bulbophyllum ecornutum (J. J. Smith) J. J. Smith (Orchidaceae)
Stages in the development of the gynostemium of Bulbophyllum ecornutum demonstrate that the pollinium stalk is a hamulus in this and in a closely related species, B. gibbolabium.
Velamen radicum micromorphology and classification of orchidaceae
Roots of 344 species of 262 representative genera of Orchidaceae have been examined under systematic aspects by light and scanning electron microscopy and a particularly remarkable cortex structure is described and the term “pseudovelamen” introduced.
The Orchids: Natural History and Classification
This lively examination of the structure, classification, evolution, and ecology of the Orchidaceae will appeal to anyone with an eye for beauty or a bent for natural history, and will provide professional biologists and amateur orchidists alike with a deeper understanding of this, the largest flowering family in the plant kingdom.
A much heightened interest in the bacteriostatic secretions of molds, of which penicillin is the most notable because of its sterilizing action in surgery, now prevails; secretions such as patulin exert similar action on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Stegmata in Orchidales: character state distribution and polarity
The- distribution of stegmata in Orchidales is given for 130 species representing 105 genera and the function of silica accumulation is reconsidered in the light of the epiphytic life-form of many of the investigated orchids.