Gynecomastia in adolescents

  title={Gynecomastia in adolescents},
  author={Christina A Nordt and Amy D. DiVasta},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pediatrics},
Purpose of review Gynecomastia is a common finding in adolescent men. The primary care provider should feel equipped to thoroughly evaluate this condition and to differentiate physiologic from pathologic breast enlargement. The present review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment of gynecomastia during adolescence. Recent findings While gynecomastia has long been attributed to an imbalance between estrogen and androgen concentrations, recent literature has begun… 
Treatment of adolescent gynecomastia.
Clinical and Biochemical Phenotype of Adolescent Males with Gynecomastia Short title/Running Head: Gynecomastia
The E2/TTE ratio may be a helpful tool in diagnosing gynecomastia and weight loss does not imply reduction of breast size in boys, nonetheless it should be the first step before further treatment of prolonged gynecombeastia.
Ginecomastia: aspectos generales y etiológicos
The aim of this article is to discuss some key points about the most important aspects related to gynecomastia, including pathophysiology, symptoms, and diagnosis, in addition to presenting the main causes associated with this condition.
A typical Ductal Hyperplasia in Gynecomastia : A Systematic Review with Case Report
The use of tamoxifen in patients with gynecomastia and ADH seems to be the safest choice of treatment, according to a systematic literature review and case report conducted.
Gynecomastia — a difficult diagnostic problem Ginekomastia — trudny problem diagnostyczny
Frequent as well as casuistic causes of gynecomastia will be described, and the five degree scale devised by Tanner and Marshall is useful in estimating disease progression.
Surgical treatment of primary gynecomastia in children and adolescents
In comparing both surgical techniques, combination of mastectomy and liposuction revealed better results in every measure except for surgical duration (median 73 vs 90 min); in contrast to adults, skin in children and adolescents provides high retractability, therefore, open reduction combined with minimally invasive Liposuction was proven useful.
Gynecomastia - a difficult diagnostic problem.
The main cause of gynecomastia is a loss of equilibrium between oestrogens and androgens, which occurs unilaterally or bilaterally, resulting from a proliferation of glandular, fibrous and adipose tissue.
Gynaecomastia: a decade of experience.


Gynecomastia: Evaluation and Treatment Recommendations for Primary Care Providers
In most cases with physiologic gynecomastia, just reassurance and close follow-up is sufficient; however, psychologic counseling and surgical intervention may be required in few selected cases of physiologic Gynecomastsia.
Classification and management of gynecomastia: defining the role of ultrasound-assisted liposuction.
Ultrasound-assisted liposuction has recently emerged as a safe and effective method for the treatment of gynecomastia, particularly efficient in the removal of the dense, fibrous male breast tissue while offering advantages in minimal external scarring.
Endocrine treatment of physiological gynaecomastia
Tamoxifen seems to be effective in patients with gynaecomastia, and although surgery in experienced hands is safe and effective, with minimal stay in hospital, the cosmetic results cannot always be guaranteed.
Treatment of Pubertal Gynecomastia with the Specific Aromatase Inhibitor Anastrozole
Anastrozole seems to be of benefit for the treatment of tenderness in gynecomastia and for patients in whom surgery is particularly risky, however, further double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials are necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the effectiveness and the side effects of this therapy.
Gynecomastia in adolescent boys.
It is recommended that adolescent gynecomastia should not be treated either surgically or with hormones, but that the boy and his parents should be assured that this is a normal phenomenon of puberty which will disappear within 1 or 2 years.
Clomiphene in the treatment of adolescent gynecomastia. Clinical and endocrine studies.
Clomiphene citrate in a dose of 50 mg/day resulted in only small decreases in persistent pubertal gynecomastia and was not a satisfactory medical therapy for the condition.
Persistent pubertal macromastia.
Comparison of the endocrine profiles of nine men with pubertal macromastia with those of nine age-matched controls revealed no differences in plasma testosterone, estradiol, TeBGbinding capacity, or PRL concentration.
Causes of gynaecomastia in young adult males and factors associated with idiopathic gynaecomastia.
Idiopathic gynaecomastia is closely correlated with generalized obesity, reduced LH and testosterone levels which may be the result of increased conversion of testosterone to oestradiol in increased adipose tissue mass in young adult males.
Testicular tumours presenting as gynaecomastia.
  • I. DanielsG. Layer
  • Medicine
    European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • 2003