author={P. Thiruchelvam and Jonathan Neil Walker and Katy Rose and Jacqueline Lewis and Ragheed Al-Mufti},
  journal={British Medical Journal},
Gynaecomastia is the benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. It is characterised by the presence of a palpable, firm, subareolar gland and ductal tissue (not fat) resulting in breast enlargement. 2 Gynaecomastia occurs in 35% of men and is most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 69. In pseudogynaecomastia there is a lack of glandular proliferation, with increase in breast size due purely to excess adiposity. It can be difficult to differentiate gynaecomastia from… 
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Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men.
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    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
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The data indicate that palpable gynecomastic is common in normal adult men and this high prevalence must be taken into consideration when attributingGynecomastia to a drug or disease state.
Gynecomasty: histological aspects in a surgical material.
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It was convincingly demonstrated that gynecomasty begins in an active proliferating phase and ends in a fibrous inactive phase and it justified that the formation of lobules, indistinguishable from what is seen in the reproduceable age in the female breast, is not necessarily related to the administration of exogenic hormones.
Bilateral gynaecomastia as the primary complaint in hyperthyroidism.
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