Gynaecomastia—pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

  title={Gynaecomastia—pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment},
  author={Harmeet S. Narula and HAROLD E. Carlson},
  journal={Nature Reviews Endocrinology},
Gynaecomastia (enlargement of the male breast tissue) is a common finding in the general population. Most cases of gynaecomastia are benign and of cosmetic, rather than clinical, importance. However, the condition might cause local pain and tenderness, could occasionally be the result of a serious underlying illness or a medication, or be inherited. Breast cancer in men is much less common than benign gynaecomastia, and the two conditions can usually be distinguished by a careful physical… 

A dynamic approach to gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia is a common condition that may be attributable to an oestrogen /androgen imbalance caused by several etiological factors and the therapy for gynaeconastia should be personalized.

Gynecomastia and hormones

Treating the underlying disease or discontinuing medications might resolve gynecomastia, although the psychosocial burden of this condition might require different and careful consideration.


The assessment and treatment of gynaecomastia is highlighted but the management of breast cancer in men is not covered as some patients will have an element of both adiposity and glandular proliferation.

Gynecomastia - Conservative and Surgical Management

For gynecomastia persisting over 12 months, surgical excision is the treatment of choice, and there are several surgical options available depending on the grade of the gynecombeastia.

Gynecomastia in a Patient Taking Meloxicam—A Case Report

This case presents an instance in which the NSAID, meloxicam, was the only identified variable in a patient who developed unilateral gynecomastia, and his breast tenderness and abnormal exam resolved spontaneously within 4 weeks of cessation ofmeloxicam therapy.

Common Breast Complaints [Gynecomastia, Breast Asymmetry, Galactorrhea]

If no secondary cause of gynecomastia is found, watchful waiting with regular follow-up is recommended as most cases regress spontaneously; if that is not the case, then medical treatment can be considered, although there are limited randomized clinical trials for medical management of gyngestion in the pediatric population.

Treatment of gynecomastia with prednisone: case report and literature review

In the present study, treating adrenal insufficiency with prednisone relieved both gynecomastia and hyponatremia, which was resolved by treatment with Prednisone.

Diagnosis and Management of Gynecomastia for Urologists

For patients taking bicalutamide for treatment of prostate cancer, tamoxifen or radiation therapy for gynecomastia are excellent options.

Invasive lobular carcinoma: a rare presentation in the male breast

A 52-year-old man with no relevant predisposing factors to breast cancer is presented, who presented with a painless, firm nodule fixed to the nipple on the left breast, associated with nipple retraction and ulceration, and fully characterised by mammogram and ultrasound.

The Role of Steroids and Hormones in Gynecomastia-Factors and Treatments

Almost all reasons of gynecomastia may be in a single manner or different much like excess production of the hormone estrogen inside the male frame because of different factors.



Gynaecomastia and breast cancer in men

The causes, evaluation, and treatment of gynaecomastia, the benign enlargement of male breast tissue resulting from a relative decrease in androgen effect or increase in oestrogen effect is reviewed.

Incidence and management of gynecomastia in men treated for prostate cancer.

Gynecomastia is a significant problem in men undergoing hormonal therapy for prostate cancer and requires prompt recognition, evaluation and management.

Pathological Findings in Gynecomastia: Analysis of 5113 Breasts

The prevalence of malignancies in GM resection specimens is low; however, it increases with patient age, particularly in patients younger than 20 years.

Gynecomastia and hyperthyroidism.

Tender breast enlargement is called attention to as one manifestation of the symptomatology of Graves’ disease itself and 4 such cases in males observed in the past one and a half years among a total of 45 cases of hyperthyroidism examined during this period.

Approach to the patient with gynecomastia.

  • H. Carlson
  • Medicine
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 2011
Although rare, male breast cancer must also be considered in the differential diagnosis, a careful diagnostic evaluation should be pursued, tailored to the individual patient's circumstances.

Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men.

  • F. Nuttall
  • Medicine
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 1979
The data indicate that palpable gynecomastic is common in normal adult men and this high prevalence must be taken into consideration when attributingGynecomastia to a drug or disease state.

Multimodality Treatment of Gynecomastia in Patients Receiving Antiandrogen Therapy for Prostate Cancer in the Era of Abiraterone Acetate and New Antiandrogen Molecules

This article focuses on gynecomastia associated with antiandrogen-based hormonal treatment and shortly reviews the currently most often used therapeutic options for preventing and treating this pathology.

Gynecomastia: clinicopathologic study of 351 cases.

It is postulated that the hyperplastic breast tissue undergoes a process of maturation or senescence, proceeding from the florid to the fibrous type, irrespective of etiologic factor.