Gut microbiota are related to Parkinson's disease and clinical phenotype

@article{Scheperjans2015GutMA,
  title={Gut microbiota are related to Parkinson's disease and clinical phenotype},
  author={Filip Scheperjans and Velma T. E. Aho and Pedro A B Pereira and Kaisa Koskinen and Lars Paulin and Eero Pekkonen and Elena Haapaniemi and Seppo Kaakkola and Johanna Eerola‐Rautio and Marjatta Pohja and Esko Kinnunen and Kari Erik Murros and Petri Auvinen},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
  year={2015},
  volume={30}
}
In the course of Parkinson's disease (PD), the enteric nervous system (ENS) and parasympathetic nerves are amongst the structures earliest and most frequently affected by alpha-synuclein pathology. [] Key Method We compared the fecal microbiomes of 72 PD patients and 72 control subjects by pyrosequencing the V1-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Associations between clinical parameters and microbiota were analyzed using generalized linear models, taking into account potential confounders. On…
Effect of Parkinson’s disease and related medications on the composition of the fecal bacterial microbiota
TLDR
The data confirm previously reported effects of COMT inhibitors on the fecal microbiota of PD patients and suggest a possible effect of L-dopa medication on the relative abundance of several bacterial genera.
Association between Parkinson’s disease and the faecal eukaryotic microbiota
TLDR
Analysis of the V6 and V7 hypervariable region of PCR-amplified, eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes using an Illumina MiSeq platform suggests a potential association of certain gut Eukaryotes and Parkinson's disease.
The Association Between the Gut Microbiota and Parkinson's Disease, a Meta-Analysis
TLDR
Shared alterations of certain gut microbiota were detected in patients with PD across different geographical regions, which might lead to the impairment of short-chain fatty acids producing process, lipid metabolism, immunoregulatory function, and intestinal permeability, which contribute to the pathogenesis of PD.
Gut Microbiota and Parkinson’s Disease: Implications for Faecal Microbiota Transplantation Therapy
TLDR
The present work reviewed the latest research to examine the association of gut microbiota with PD, and the future prospects of FMT treatment, and suggested that faecal microbiota transplantation may serve as a direct and useful treatment for PD in the future.
Altered Gut Microbiome and Intestinal Pathology in Parkinson’s Disease
TLDR
Current clinical and pathological evidence of gut involvement in PD is provided by summarizing the changes in gut microbiota composition and gut inflammation associated with its pathogenesis.
GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTIONS AND PERIPHERAL INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN PARKINSON’S DISEASES
TLDR
It is shown that disturbances in plasma cytokine level could be more profound in PD patients with altered composition of intestinal microbiota, which may explain the mechanism of influence of microbiota composition on the PD manifestations.
Parkinson’s disease-associated alterations of the gut microbiome can invoke disease-relevant metabolic changes
TLDR
PD-associated alterations of gut microbiome could translate into functional differences affecting host metabolism and disease phenotype, as well as personalised metabolic modelling of the gut microbiomes revealed PD-associated metabolic patterns in secretion potential of nine microbial metabolites in PD.
Gut microbiota in Parkinson’s disease patients: hospital-based study
TLDR
A significant connection between PD and levels of certain types of gut microbiota is highlighted, in support of a possible link between gut microbiota and a neurodegenerative cascade of PD.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 92 REFERENCES
Colonic inflammation in Parkinson's disease
Progression of intestinal permeability changes and alpha‐synuclein expression in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease
TLDR
LPS, an endotoxin used to model PD, causes sequential increases in α‐syn immunoreactivity, intestinal permeability, and pathological α‐ syn accumulation in the colon in a manner similar to that observed in patients with PD.
Increased Intestinal Permeability Correlates with Sigmoid Mucosa alpha-Synuclein Staining and Endotoxin Exposure Markers in Early Parkinson's Disease
TLDR
The data show that PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness) than controls and this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects.
Pathological correlates of gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease
The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease
TLDR
The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa.
Gut Hormones restrict neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease
TLDR
This observation shows that the topographic ascending lesion pattern resembles a falling row of dopamine in Parkinson’s disease, and suggests protein accumulation in enteric neurons spreads in a retrograde manner to the brain through the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and triggers Parkinson's disease.
Colonic Biopsies to Assess the Neuropathology of Parkinson's Disease and Its Relationship with Symptoms
TLDR
Analysis of the ENS by routine colonoscopy biopsies is a useful tool for pre-mortem neuropathological diagnosis of PD, and also provides insight into the progression of motor and non-motor symptoms.
Helicobacter Hypothesis for Idiopathic Parkinsonism: Before and Beyond
TLDR
The concept of idiopathic parkinsonism as inevitably progressive neurodegeneration is challenged, proposing a natural history of sequential microbial insults with predisposing host response with clinically relevant gradients between this “discriminant index” and disease burden and progression.
A role for the gut microbiota in IBS
  • S. Collins
  • Medicine, Biology
    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &Hepatology
  • 2014
TLDR
The evidence implicating the gut microbiota in not only the expression of the intestinal manifestations of IBS, but also the psychiatric morbidity that coexists in up to 80% of patients with IBS is described.
Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease
...
...