Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis

  title={Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis},
  author={Kevin G Murphy and Stephen Robert Bloom},
Food intake, energy expenditure and body adiposity are homeostatically regulated. Central and peripheral signals communicate information about the current state of energy balance to key brain regions, including the hypothalamus and brainstem. Hunger and satiety represent coordinated responses to these signals, which include neural and hormonal messages from the gut. In recent years our understanding of how neural and hormonal brain–gut signalling regulates energy homeostasis has advanced… 

Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

An overview of the main gut hormones implicated in the regulation of food intake and how some of these are being targeted to develop anti obesity treatments is given.

Brain regulation of appetite and satiety.

  • R. AhimaD. Antwi
  • Biology
    Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
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The role of the gut/brain axis in modulating food intake

Neuronal regulation of homeostasis by nutrient sensing

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  • Medicine, Biology
    Nature Medicine
  • 2010
These findings provide a physiological and neuronal framework by which enhancing or restoring nutrient sensing in the intestine and the brain could normalize energy and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity.

Gut–brain cross-talk in appetite regulation

The interplay between gut and brain which mediates the regulation of appetite and energy expenditure is looked at, which indicates the role of gut hormones involved in appetite regulation and their potential in the treatment of obesity.

Energy Homeostasis and Obesity: The Therapeutic Role of Anorexigenic and Orexigenic Peptide

  • C. PatelS. Acharya
  • Biology, Psychology
    International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics
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This review furnishes a study of the peptides that have been concerned with appetite physiology and energy homeostasis and also includes their therapeutic application (agonist and antagonist).

Metabolism and satiety

The present chapter reviews how short- and long-term mechanisms operate in concert to provide an appropriate regulation of satiety, and focuses on emerging knowledge of the metabolic effects of adipokines on energy homeostasis.

Peripheral signalling involved in energy homeostasis control

Signals from other tissues not previously thought to play a role in body weight regulation have emerged in recent years, contributing to the potential development of new therapeutic targets aimed at tackling excess body fat accumulation.



The Gut and Energy Balance: Visceral Allies in the Obesity Wars

In addition to digesting and assimilating nutrients, the intestine and associated visceral organs play a key sensing and signaling role in the physiology of energy homeostasis and have led to exploration of novel routes for obesity control, some of which involve gut-derived pathways.

Central nervous system control of food intake

A model is described that delineates the roles of individual hormonal and neuropeptide signalling pathways in the control of food intake and the means by which obesity can arise from inherited or acquired defects in their function.

Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents

It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.

Effects of obestatin on energy balance and growth hormone secretion in rodents.

The results presented here do not support a role of the obestatin/GPR-39 system in the regulation of energy balance, and it is concluded that ghrelin stimulates food intake and adiposity and thereby increases body weight in rodents after central as well as peripheral administration.

Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system

  • R. Cone
  • Biology
    Nature Neuroscience
  • 2005
Given that the central melanocortin system is an active target for development of drugs for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and cachexia, it is important to understand the system in its full complexity, including the likelihood that the system also regulates the cardiovascular and reproductive systems.

Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight

Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation.

Characterization of the effects of pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of energy balance.

Pancreatic polypeptide reduces appetite and food intake in humans.

The data demonstrates that PP causes a sustained decrease in both appetite and food intake, which suggests that PP may act as a circulating factor that regulates food intake.

The influence of insulin on circulating ghrelin.

The data suggest that insulin may suppress circulating ghrelin independently of glucose, although glucose may have an additional effect, and conclude that the GH response seen during hypoglycemia is not regulated by circulating gh Relin.