Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP

  title={Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP},
  author={Jan Fahrenkrug},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation},
  pages={35 - 39}
  • J. Fahrenkrug
  • Published 1 January 2001
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
The two structurally related gut/brain peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are pleiotropic peptides with a wide-spread occurrence. Besides their presence and functions in the gut and the brain VIP and PACAP have distinct physiological roles in the genital tract. VIP seems to be involved in the nervous control of ovum transportation, sexual arousal in women and penile erection in men. Dysfunction of the VIP nerves can… 
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Expression of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP) and PAC1 in the Periodontal Ligament After Tooth Luxation
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The VPAC1 receptor: structure and function of a class B GPCR prototype
The use of different approaches such as directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labeling, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, molecular modeling, and molecular dynamic simulation has led to demonstrate that the central and C-terminal part of the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor which is itself structured as a « Sushi » domain.
Mechanisms of Penile Erection and Basis for Pharmacological Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction (ED), defined as the “inability to achieve or maintain an erection adequate for sexual satisfaction,” may have multiple causes and can be classified as psychogenic, vasculogenic or organic, neurologic, and endocrinologic.


Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the human female reproductive tract: distribution and motor effects.
The data support the view that VIP may play a physiological role in the local control of smooth muscle motility in the human female genital tract.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract.
A smooth muscle regulatory role of PACAP is suggested in the human female reproductive tract through its distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the male genitourinary tract: concentration and motor effect.
The data indicate that VIP might play a physiologic role in the local nervous control of the smooth muscle activity in the male genitourinary tract.
Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) upon myometrial blood flow in non-pregnant rabbit.
It is likely that VIP plays a role in the local nervous control of myometrial blood flow because the MBF increase was not antagonized by atropine, adrenergic blocking agents or naloxone, and the action of VIP seems to be direct on vascular smooth muscle rather than mediated by other neurotransmitters.
Distribution and motor effect of VIP in female genital tract.
The hypothesis that VIP may play a physiological role in the local nervous control of the uterine mechanical activity is supported.