Gustducin and its Role in Taste

@article{Spielman1998GustducinAI,
  title={Gustducin and its Role in Taste},
  author={Andrew I Spielman},
  journal={Journal of Dental Research},
  year={1998},
  volume={77},
  pages={539 - 544}
}
  • A. Spielman
  • Published 1 April 1998
  • Biology
  • Journal of Dental Research
The mechanisms responsible for taste signal transductions are very complex. A key molecule, α-gustducin, a primarily taste-specific G protein α-subunit, was discovered in 1992 and was later found to be Involved in both bitter and sweet taste transduction. A proposed mechanism for α-gustducin involves coupling specific cell-surface receptors with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase which would open a cyclic nucleotide-suppressible cation channel leading to influx of calcium, and ultimately… 
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References

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Transduction of bitter and sweet taste by gustducin
TLDR
Gustducin is a principal mediator of both bitter and sweet signal transduction, and its role in taste transduction is investigated by generating and characterizing mice deficient in the gustducin α-subunit.
Taste reception.
TLDR
Taste transduction typically utilizes two or more pathways in parallel, and to identify these pathways, to understand how they are controlled and why they evolved to this complexity are major goals of present research.
Gustducin and transducin: a tale of two G proteins.
TLDR
The primary sequence of alpha gustducin shows similarities to the transducins in the receptor interaction domain and the phosphodiesterase activation site, which suggest that gust Ducin and transducin regulate taste cell phosphodiesters, probably in bitter taste transduction.
Coupling of bitter receptor to phosphodiesterase through transducin in taste receptor cells
TLDR
It is suggested that rod transducin tranduces bitter taste by coupling taste receptor(s) to taste-cell phosphodiesterase through the recently identified cyclic-nucleotide-suppressible conductance.
Gustducin is a taste-cell-specific G protein closely related to the transducins
A novel G protein α-subunit (α-gustducin) has been identified and cloned from taste tissue, α-Gustducin messenger RNA is expressed in taste buds of all taste papillae (circumvallate, foliate and
Differential Expression of α-Gustducin in Taste Bud Populations of the Rat and Hamster
TLDR
The hypothesis that α-gustducin is involved in the transduction of both sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli by mammalian taste receptor cells is supported.
A cyclic–nucleotide–suppressible conductance activated by transducin in taste cells
TLDR
It is proposed that transducin, via phosphodiesterase, decreases cyclic nucleotide levels to activate the cyclic-nucleotide-suppressible conductance, leading to Ca2+ influx and taste-cell depolarization.
Rapid kinetics of second messenger production in bitter taste.
TLDR
The rapid kinetics, transient nature, and specificity of the bitter taste stimulus-induced IP3 formation are consistent with the role of IP3 as a second messenger in the chemoelectrical transduction of bitter taste.
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Functional expression of the taste specific G-protein, alpha-gustducin.
TLDR
The functional equivalence of alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin suggest that taste buds are likely to contain receptor and effector proteins that share many properties with their retinal equivalents.
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