Gustducin and its Role in Taste

  title={Gustducin and its Role in Taste},
  author={Andrew I Spielman},
  journal={Journal of Dental Research},
  pages={539 - 544}
  • A. Spielman
  • Published 1 April 1998
  • Biology
  • Journal of Dental Research
The mechanisms responsible for taste signal transductions are very complex. A key molecule, α-gustducin, a primarily taste-specific G protein α-subunit, was discovered in 1992 and was later found to be Involved in both bitter and sweet taste transduction. A proposed mechanism for α-gustducin involves coupling specific cell-surface receptors with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase which would open a cyclic nucleotide-suppressible cation channel leading to influx of calcium, and ultimately… 
Molecular Mechanisms of Bitter and Sweet Taste Transduction*
The focus of this review is on recent advances in understanding of the transduction elements and signaling mechanisms underlying bitter and sweet taste transduction.
An alternative pathway for sweet sensation: possible mechanisms and physiological relevance.
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The emerging picture is that not only do individual taste qualities use more than one mechanism, but multiple pathways are available for individual tastants as well.
Sweet Taste Is Complex: Signaling Cascades and Circuits Involved in Sweet Sensation
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Biochemistry of Human Bitter Taste Receptors
The gustatory system has been selected during evolution to detect nutritive and beneficial compounds as well as harmful substances and bitter taste is believed to have evolved as a central warning signal against the ingestion of potentially toxic substances.
Taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.
The Hidden One: What We Know About Bitter Taste Receptor 39
The primary role of TAS2R39 is to sense the bitter components of food and protect the organism from harmful compounds, and there is also some indication that this bitter taste receptor regulates enterohormones and in turn, regulates food intake.
Molecular Basis of Taste Sense: Involvement of GPCR Receptors
The current state of knowledge about the involvement of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in taste sensing and intracellular signaling is reviewed.
A cluster of gustducin-expressing cells in the mouse stomach associated with two distinct populations of enteroendocrine cells
The particular arrangement of gustducin-expressing cells and enteroendocrine cells at the limiting ridge suggests a direct interplay between these cell types with immediate implications, not only for digestive processes in the stomach, but also for parameters controlling the satiety status.


Transduction of bitter and sweet taste by gustducin
Gustducin is a principal mediator of both bitter and sweet signal transduction, and its role in taste transduction is investigated by generating and characterizing mice deficient in the gustducin α-subunit.
Taste reception.
Taste transduction typically utilizes two or more pathways in parallel, and to identify these pathways, to understand how they are controlled and why they evolved to this complexity are major goals of present research.
Gustducin and transducin: a tale of two G proteins.
The primary sequence of alpha gustducin shows similarities to the transducins in the receptor interaction domain and the phosphodiesterase activation site, which suggest that gust Ducin and transducin regulate taste cell phosphodiesters, probably in bitter taste transduction.
Coupling of bitter receptor to phosphodiesterase through transducin in taste receptor cells
It is suggested that rod transducin tranduces bitter taste by coupling taste receptor(s) to taste-cell phosphodiesterase through the recently identified cyclic-nucleotide-suppressible conductance.
Gustducin is a taste-cell-specific G protein closely related to the transducins
A novel G protein α-subunit (α-gustducin) has been identified and cloned from taste tissue, α-Gustducin messenger RNA is expressed in taste buds of all taste papillae (circumvallate, foliate and
Differential Expression of α-Gustducin in Taste Bud Populations of the Rat and Hamster
The hypothesis that α-gustducin is involved in the transduction of both sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli by mammalian taste receptor cells is supported.
A cyclic–nucleotide–suppressible conductance activated by transducin in taste cells
It is proposed that transducin, via phosphodiesterase, decreases cyclic nucleotide levels to activate the cyclic-nucleotide-suppressible conductance, leading to Ca2+ influx and taste-cell depolarization.
Rapid kinetics of second messenger production in bitter taste.
The rapid kinetics, transient nature, and specificity of the bitter taste stimulus-induced IP3 formation are consistent with the role of IP3 as a second messenger in the chemoelectrical transduction of bitter taste.
Mechanisms of taste transduction
Functional expression of the taste specific G-protein, alpha-gustducin.
The functional equivalence of alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin suggest that taste buds are likely to contain receptor and effector proteins that share many properties with their retinal equivalents.