Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics, bullets, weapons, and myths.

@article{Rhee2016GunshotWA,
  title={Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics, bullets, weapons, and myths.},
  author={Peter M Rhee and Ernest E. Moore and Bellal A. Joseph and Andrew L. Tang and Viraj Pandit and Gary A. Vercruysse},
  journal={The journal of trauma and acute care surgery},
  year={2016},
  volume={80 6},
  pages={
          853-67
        }
}
I the United States, someone experiences a gunshot wound every 4 minutes 44 seconds, and a person dies as a result each 16 minutes. Annually, this means that approximately 111,000 Americans are shot and 33,800 die as a result of these injuries, which equates to 93 deaths caused by firearms every day. In contrast, the war in Iraq and Afghanistan has resulted in less than 200 deaths per year from gunshot wounds during the height of the conflict (Table 1). Gunshot wound injuries are a preventable… Expand
Mechanisms of Penetrating Trauma to the Neck
TLDR
Understanding the mechanisms of ballistic trauma plays a crucial role in diagnosis and management of these wounds and it is important for surgeons to understand the mechanisms by which tissue damage is incurred. Expand
Wound ballistics of military rifle bullets: an update on controversial issues and associated misconceptions.
TLDR
A substantial component of high-energy transfer in assault rifle injuries is manifested by the dynamic phenomenon of temporary cavitation, which is extensively reviewed with respect to its impact on the wound production and the associated controversy surrounding its consequences in soft tissue wounds. Expand
Gunshot and blast injuries of the extremities: a review of 45 cases
TLDR
The role of microsurgery is essential, especially in the high- and very high-risk injuries, since complex and multiple reconstructions have to be performed, which include the utilization of free flaps, nerve grafts, and tendon transfers. Expand
Wounding Patterns Based on Firearm Type in Civilian Public Mass Shootings in the United States.
TLDR
Civilian public mass shooting events with a handgun are more lethal than those associated with use of a rifle. Expand
Gunshot wound trajectory analysis using forensic animation to establish relative positions of shooter and victim.
TLDR
Report of an officer-involved shooting incident, the statement of the police officer appeared to be in direct contradiction to the statements of other eyewitnesses, the evidence at the scene, and the final resting position of the decedent's body. Expand
Firearm injuries and children: Position statement of the American Pediatric Surgical Association.
TLDR
The American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) is committed to comprehensive pediatric trauma readiness, including firearm injury prevention, and supports a public health approach to firearm injury, and it supports availability of quality mental health services. Expand
Shotgun Wounds: Nationwide Trends in Epidemiology, Injury Patterns, and Outcomes from US Trauma Centers.
TLDR
In the United States, shotgun wounds as a result of interpersonal violence far outweigh self-inflicted and accidental injuries and thereby delineate the high-risk patient population for injury by this mechanism at a national level. Expand
Evolution of Firearm Violence over 20 Years: Integrating Law Enforcement and Clinical Data.
TLDR
Larger caliber and higher velocity firearms have significantly increased over the past 20 years in conjunction with injury severity, hospital days, and mean number of gun-related homicides per year. Expand
Neurosurgical Care of Nonpowder Firearm Injuries: A Narrative Review of the Literature
TLDR
A narrative review of the literature of the management of nonpowder firearm injuries with particular emphasis on intracranial injury finds a multidisciplinary team is needed to manage the direct results of penetrating injury and long-term sequalae. Expand
Outcome and rational management of civilian gunshot injuries to the brain—retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital from 2000 to 2012
TLDR
GSWB caused by contact shot from handguns has a high mortality rate, but can be survived with reasonable outcome if limited to lobar injury without significant damage to deep brain structures or brain stem. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES
Does the Declining Lethality of Gunshot Injuries Mask a Rising Epidemic of Gun Violence in the United States?
TLDR
Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can misrepresent the rising epidemic ofGun violence in the U.S. Expand
Interpretation of fatal, multiple, and exiting gunshot wounds by trauma specialists.
TLDR
To determine how accurately trauma specialists can differentiate entrance and exit wounds in fatal perforating (exiting) gunshot wounds and determine the number of penetrating orPerforating projectiles in fatal multiple gunshot wounds, a review of firearm-related fatalities at a North Carolina Baptist Hospital over the last five and a half years was reviewed. Expand
Myths and Misinformation About Gunshot Wounds may Adversely Affect Proper Treatment
TLDR
Erroneous beliefs involving wound ballistics are prevalent even among clinicians who frequently treat victims of GSWs and could lead to inappropriate treatment, but could be addressed through education. Expand
Gunshot wounds: bullet caliber is increasing, 1998-2003.
In 1999, Caruso reported data from the level 1 trauma center in Newark, New Jersey, documenting "...an ominous trend toward the use of larger caliber firearms in accidents, homicides and suicides."Expand
Civilian gunshot wounds and ballistics: dispelling the myths.
  • M. Fackler
  • Medicine
  • Emergency medicine clinics of North America
  • 1998
TLDR
The causes of recently increasing misinformation are an increasing firearm illiteracy, failure of the editorial and peer review in the trauma surgery literature to adequately evaluate wound ballistics papers, and widespread distortions promulgated by gun prohibitionist advocates. Expand
High-velocity gunshot wounds to the head and neck: a review of wound ballistics.
TLDR
This work studied the wound ballistics in five soldiers who suffered penetrating cranial and cervical firearm injuries and found it difficult to predict the severity of the injury in the chaotic circumstances of the battlefield. Expand
Wound ballistics 101: the mechanisms of soft tissue wounding by bullets
TLDR
The bullet’s construction and ballistic behavior within tissue determine to what extent the previously overestimated velocity factor may influence wound severity, and the term “high-energy” should be reserved for those injuries with substantial tissue damage extending beyond the visible wound tract. Expand
Ballistics reviews: mechanisms of bullet wound trauma
The location of an entrance wound (bullet placement) and the projectile path are the most important factors in causing significant injury or death following a shooting. The head followed by the torsoExpand
Firearm injuries in the United States.
TLDR
Firearm injuries are an important public health problem in the United States, contributing substantially each year to premature death, illness, and disability and a science-driven approach to understand risk and protective factors and identify effective solutions is key to achieving measurable reductions in firearm violence. Expand
Penetrating gunshots to the head and lack of immediate incapacitation
  • B. Karger
  • Medicine
  • International Journal of Legal Medicine
  • 2005
TLDR
Depending on ballistic and anatomical parameters, the intracranial effect varies from slightly more severe injury than in isolated soft tissue to an “explosive” type of injury with comminuted fractures of the skull and laceration of the brain. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...