Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

  title={Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)},
  author={Daniel J. Klionsky and Kotb Abdelmohsen and Akihisa Abe and Md. Joynal Abedin and Hagai Abeliovich and Abraham Acevedo Arozena and Hiroaki Adachi and Christopher M. Adams and Peter D. Adams and Khosrow Adeli and Peter J. Adhihetty and Sharon G. Adler and Galila Agam and Rajesh Agarwal and Manish K. Aghi and Maria Carmen Agnello and Patrizia Agostinis and Patricia V. Aguilar and Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso and Edoardo M. Airoldi and Slimane Ait-Si-Ali and Takahiko Akematsu and Emmanuel T. Akporiaye and Mohamed Al‐Rubeai and Guillermo M. Albaiceta and Chris Albanese and Diego Albani and Matthew L. Albert and Jes{\'u}s Aldudo and Hana Alg{\"u}l and M. Alirezaei and Iraide Alloza and Alexandru Almasan and Maylin Almonte-Beceril and Emad S Alnemri and Covadonga Alonso and N Altan-Bonnet and Dario C. Altieri and Silvia Alvarez and Lydia Alvarez-Erviti and Sandro Alves and Giuseppina Amadoro and Atsuo Amano and Consuelo Amantini and Santiago Ambrosio and Ivano Amelio and Amal O. Amer and Mohamed Amessou and Angelika Amon and Zhenyi An and Frank A Anania and Stig. U. Andersen and Usha P. Andley and Catherine K Andreadi and Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie and Alberto Anel and David Kong Ann and Shailendra Anoopkumar‐Dukie and Manuela Antonioli and Hiroshi Aoki and Nadezda Apostolova and Saveria Aquila and Katia Aquilano and Koichi Araki and Eli Arama and Agust{\'i}n Aranda and Jun Araya and Alexandre Arcaro and Esperanza Arias and Hirokazu Arimoto and Aileen R. Ariosa and Jane Armstrong and Thierry Arnould and Ivica Arsov and Katsuhiko Asanuma and Valerie Askanas and Eric Asselin and Ryuichiro Atarashi and Sally S. Atherton and Julie D Atkin and Laura D. Attardi and Patrick Auberger and Georg Auburger and Laure Aurelian and Riccardo Autelli and Laura Avagliano and Maria Avantaggiati and Limor Avrahami and Suresh Awale and Neelam Azad and Tiziana Bachetti and Jonathan M. Backer and Dong-Hun Bae and Jae-Sung Bae and Ok-Nam Bae and Soo Han Bae and Eric H. Baehrecke and Seung-Hoon Baek and Stephen Baghdiguian and Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna and Hua Bai and Jie Bai and Xueyuan Bai and Yannick Bailly and Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji and Walter Balduini and Andrea Ballabio and Rena Balzan and Rajkumar Banerjee and G{\'a}bor B{\'a}nhegyi and Haijun Bao and Benoit Barbeau and Mar{\'i}a D Barrachina and Esther Barreiro and Bonnie Bartel and Alberto Bartolom{\'e} and Diane C. Bassham and Maria Teresa Bassi and Robert C. Bast and Alakananda Basu and Maria Teresa Batista and Henri Batoko and Maurizio Antonio Battino and Kyle Bauckman and Bradley L Baumgarner and K. U. Bayer and Rupert Beale and Jean-François Beaulieu and George R. Beck and Christoph Becker and J David Beckham and P A B{\'e}dard and Patrick J. Bednarski and Thomas J. Begley and Christian Behl and Christian Behrends and Georg M N Behrens and Kevin E. Behrns and Eloy Bejarano and Amine Belaid and Francesca Belleudi and Giovanni Bénard and Guy Berchem and D Bergamaschi and Matteo Bergami and Ben Berkhout and Laura Berliocchi and Am{\'e}lie Bernard and Monique Bernard and Francesca Bernassola and Anne Bertolotti and Amanda Smith Bess and S{\'e}bastien Besteiro and Saverio Bettuzzi and Savita Bhalla and Shalmoli Bhattacharyya and Sujit Kumar Bhutia and Caroline A Biagosch and Michele Wolfe Bianchi and Martine Biard-Piechaczyk and Viktor A Billes and Claudia Bincoletto and Baris Bingol and Sara W. Bird and Marc Bitoun and Ivana Bjedov and Craig Blackstone and Lionel Blanc and Guillermo A. Blanco and Heidi Kiil Blomhoff and Emilio Boada-Romero and Stefan B{\"o}ckler and Marianne Boes and Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia and Lawrence H. Boise and Alessandra Bolino and Andrea Boman and Paolo Bonaldo and Matteo Bordi and J{\"u}rgen Bosch and Luis Miguel Botana and Jo{\"e}lle Botti and Germ{\'a}n Bou and Marina Bouch{\'e} and Marion Bouchecareilh and M J Boucher and Michael E. Boulton and Sebastien G. Bouret and Patricia Boya and Michaël Boyer-Guittaut and Peter V. Bozhkov and Nathan Ryan Brady and Vania M M Braga and Claudio Brancolini and Gerhard H. Braus and Jos{\'e} M Bravo-San Pedro and Lisa A Brennan and Emery H. Bresnick and Patrick Brest and Dave Bridges and Marie-Agn{\`e}s Bringer and Marisa Brini and Glauber C. Brito and Bertha A. Brodin and Paul S. Brookes and Eric J. Brown and Karen P. Brown and Hal E. Broxmeyer and Alain Bruhat and Patr{\'i}cia Chakur Brum and John H. Brumell and Nicola Brunetti‐Pierri and Robert J. Bryson-Richardson and Shilpa Buch and Alastair M. Buchan and Hikmet Budak and Dmitry V Bulavin and Scott J. Bultman and Geert Bultynck and Vladimir Z. Bumbasirevic and Yan Burelle and Robert E Burke and Margit Burmeister and Peter B{\"u}tikofer and Laura Caberlotto and Ken Cadwell and Monika Cahova and Dongsheng Cai and Jingjing Cai and Qian Cai and Sara Calatayud and Nadine Camougrand and Michelangelo Campanella and Grant R. Campbell and Matthew Campbell and Silvia Campello and Robin Candau and Isabella Caniggia and Lavinia Cantoni and Lizhi Cao and Allan B Caplan and Michele Caraglia and Claudio Cardinali and Sandra Morais Cardoso and Jennifer S Carew and Laura A. Carleton and Cathleen R Carlin and Silvia Carloni and Sven R. Carlsson and Didac Carmona-Gutierrez and Leticia A M Carneiro and Oliana Carnevali and Serena Carra and Alice Carrier and Bernadette Carroll and Caty Casas and Josefina Casas and Giuliana Cassinelli and Perrine Castets and Susana Castro-Obreg{\'o}n and Gabriella Cavallini and Isabella Ceccherini and Francesco Cecconi and Arthur I. Cederbaum and Valent{\'i}n Ce{\~n}a and Simone Cenci and Claudia Cerella and Davide Cervia and Silvia Cetrullo and Hassan Chaachouay and Han-Jung Chae and Andrei S. Chagin and Chee-Yin Chai and Gopal Chakrabarti and Georgios Chamilos and Edmond Y. W. Chan and Matthew T. V. Chan and Dhyan Chandra and Pallavi Chandra and Chih-Peng Chang and Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Ta-Yuan Chang and John C. Chatham and Saurabh Chatterjee and Santosh Chauhan and Yongsheng Che and Michael E. Cheetham and Rajkumar Cheluvappa and Chun-Jung Chen and Gang Chen and Guang-Chao Chen and Guoqiang Chen and Hongzhuan Chen and Jeff W. Chen and Jian-kang Chen and Min Chen and Mingzhou Chen and Peiwen Chen and Qi Chen and Quan Chen and Shang Der Chen and Si Chen and Steve S.-L. Chen and Wei Chen and Wei-Jung Chen and Wen Qiang Chen and Wenli Chen and Xiangmei Chen and Yau-Hung Chen and Ye Guang Chen and Yin Chen and Yingyu Chen and Yongshun Chen and Yu-Jen Chen and Yue-Qin Chen and Yujie Chen and Zhen Chen and Zhong Chen and Alan Cheng and Christopher H. K. Cheng and Hua Cheng and Heesun Cheong and Sara Cherry and Jason A Chesney and Chun Hei Antonio Cheung and Eric Chevet and Hsiang-Cheng Chi and Sung-Gil Chi and Fulvio Chiacchiera and Hui-Ling Chiang and Roberto Chiarelli and Mario Chiariello and Marcello Chieppa and Lih-Shen Chin and Mario Chiong and Gigi N. C. Chiu and Dong-Hyung Cho and Ssang-Goo Cho and William Chi Shing Cho and Yong-Yeon Cho and Young-Seok Cho and Augustine M K Choi and Eui-Ju Choi and Eun-Kyoung Choi and Jayoung Choi and Mary E. Choi and Seung-Il Choi and Tsui‐Fen Chou and Salem Chouaib and Divaker Choubey and Vinay Choubey and Kuan-Chih Chow and Kamal Chowdhury and Charleen T. Chu and Tsung-Hsien Chuang and Taehoon Chun and Hyewon Chung and Taijoon Chung and Yuen-Li Chung and Yong-Joon Chwae and Valentina Cianfanelli and Roberto Ciarcia and Iwona A. Ciechomska and Maria Rosa Ciriolo and Mara Cirone and Sofie Claerhout and M. J. Clague and Joan Cl{\`a}ria and Peter G. H. Clarke and Robert Clarke and Emilio Clementi and C{\'e}dric Cleyrat and Miriam Cnop and Eliana Marina Coccia and Tiziana Cocco and Patrice Codogno and J{\"o}rn Coers and Ezra E. W. Cohen and David Colecchia and Luisa Coletto and N{\'u}ria S. Coll and Emma Colucci-Guyon and Sergio Comincini and Maria Condello and Katherine L. Cook and Graham H. Coombs and Cynthia D. Cooper and J. Mark Cooper and Isabelle Coppens and Maria Tiziana Corasaniti and Marco Corazzari and Ram{\'o}n Corbal{\'a}n and Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau and Mario D. Cordero and Cristina Corral-Ramos and Olga Corti and Andrea Cossarizza and Paola Costelli and Safia Costes and Susan L. Cotman and Ana Coto-Montes and Sandra Cottet and Eduardo Couve and Lori R. Covey and L. Ashley Cowart and Jeffery S. Cox and Fraser P. Coxon and Carolyn B. Coyne and Mark S. Cragg and Rolf Joseph Craven and Tiziana Crepaldi and Jose Luis Crespo and Alfredo Criollo and Valeria Crippa and Maria Teresa Cruz and Ana Mar{\'i}a Cuervo and Jos{\'e} M. Cuezva and Taixing Cui and Pedro Rodriguez Cutillas and Mark J Czaja and Maria F. Czyzyk-Krzeska and Ruben K. Dagda and Uta Dahmen and Chunsun Dai and WenJie Dai and Yun Dai and Kevin N. Dalby and Luisa Dalla Valle and Guillaume Dalmasso and Marcello D’Amelio and Markus Damme and Arlette Darfeuille‐Michaud and Catherine Dargemont and Victor Darley-Usmar and Srinivasan Dasarathy and Biplab Dasgupta and Srikanta Dash and Crispin R. Dass and Hazel Marie Davey and Lester M. Davids and David D{\'a}vila and Roger J. Davis and Ted M. Dawson and Valina L. Dawson and Paula Daza and Jacqueline de Belleroche and Paul de Figueiredo and Regina C{\'e}lia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo and Jos{\'e} de la Fuente and Luisa De Martino and Antonella De Matteis and Guido R. Y. De Meyer and Angelo De Milito and Mauro De Santi and Wanderley de Souza and Vincenzo De Tata and Daniela De Zio and Jayanta Debnath and Reinhard Dechant and Jean-Paul Decuypere and Shane Deegan and Benjamin Dehay and Barbara del Bello and Dominic P Del Re and R{\'e}gis Delage-Mourroux and Lea M. D. Delbridge and Louise Deldicque and Elizabeth Delorme-Axford and Yi Zhen Deng and Joern Dengjel and Mélanie Denizot and Paul Dent and Channing J. Der and Vojo Deretic and Beno{\^i}t Derrien and Eric Deutsch and Timothy P Devarenne and Rodney J Devenish and Sabrina Di Bartolomeo and Nicola Di Daniele and Fabio Di Domenico and Alessia Di Nardo and S. Di Paola and Antonio Di Pietro and Livia di Renzo and Aaron Diantonio and Guillermo D{\'i}az-Araya and In{\'e}s D{\'i}az-Laviada and Maria T Diaz-Meco and Javier D{\'i}az-Nido and Chad A Dickey and Robert C. Dickson and Marc F Diederich and Paul Digard and Ivan Dikic and S P Dinesh-Kumar and Chan Ding and Wen-Xing Ding and Zufeng Ding and Luciana Dini and J{\"o}rg H. W. Distler and Abhinav Diwan and Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny and Kostyantyn V. Dmytruk and Renwick C. J. Dobson and Volker Doetsch and Karol Dokładny and Svetlana Dokudovskaya and Massimo Donadelli and X. Charlie Dong and Xiaonan Dong and Zheng Dong and Terrence M. Donohue and Kelly S. Doran and Gabriella D’Orazi and Gerald W. Dorn and Victor E Dosenko and Sami Dridi and Liat Drucker and Jie Du and Li-Lin Du and Lihua Du and Andre du Toit and Priya Dua and Lei Duan and Pu Duann and Vikash Kumar Dubey and Michael R. Duchen and Michel A Duchosal and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Duez and Isabelle Dugail and Ver{\'o}nica I. Dumit and Mara C. Duncan and Elaine A Dunlop and W Augustine Dunn and Nicolas Dupont and Luc Dupuis and Ra{\'u}l V. D{\'u}ran and Thomas M. Durcan and St{\'e}phane Duvezin-Caubet and U. Duvvuri and Vinay V. Eapen and Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari and Arnaud Echard and Leopold Eckhart and Charles Louis Edelstein and Aimee L Edinger and Ludwig Eichinger and Tobias Eisenberg and Avital Eisenberg-Lerner and N Tony Eissa and Wafik S. El-Deiry and Victoria El-Khoury and Zvulun Elazar and Hagit Eldar-Finkelman and Christopher J. H. Elliott and Enzo Emanuele and Urban Emmenegger and Nikolai Engedal and Anna-Mart Engelbrecht and Simone Engelender and Jorrit M. Enserink and Ralf Erdmann and Jekaterina Erenpreisa and Rajaraman D Eri and Jason L. Eriksen and Andreja Erman and Ricardo Escalante and Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen and Lucile Espert and Lorena Esteban-Mart{\'i}nez and Thomas J. Evans and Mario Fabri and Gemma Fabri{\`a}s and Cinzia Fabrizi and Antonio Facchiano and Nils Joakim Kaas F{\ae}rgeman and Alberto Faggioni and W Douglas Fairlie and Chunhai Fan and Daping Fan and Jie Fan and Shengyun Fang and Manolis Fanto and Alessandro Fanzani and Thomas Farkas and Mathias Faure and François B. Favier and Howard O. Fearnhead and Massimo Federici and Erkang Fei and Tania C. Felizardo and Hua Feng and Yibin Feng and Yuchen Feng and Thomas A. Ferguson and {\'A}lvaro F. Fern{\'a}ndez and Maite G. Fern{\'a}ndez-Barrena and Jose C. Fernandez-Checa and Arsenio Fern{\'a}ndez‐L{\'o}pez and Mart{\'i}n E Fern{\'a}ndez-Zapico and Olivier Feron and Elisabetta Ferraro and Carmen Ver{\'i}ssima Ferreira-Halder and L{\`a}szl{\`o} Fesus and Ralph Feuer and Fabienne C. Fiesel and Eduardo Filippi-Chiela and Giuseppe Filomeni and Gian Maria Fimia and John H. Fingert and Steven Finkbeiner and Toren Finkel and Filomena Fiorito and Paul B Fisher and Marc Flajolet and Flavio Flamigni and Oliver Florey and Salvatore Florio and R. Andres Floto and Marco Folini and Carlo Follo and Edward A. Fon and Francesco Fornai and F Fortunato and Alessandro Fraldi and Rodrigo Franco and Arnaud François and Aur{\'e}lie François and Lisa B. Frankel and Iain D. C. Fraser and Norbert Frey and Damien Freyssenet and Christian Frezza and Scott L. Friedman and Daniel E. Frigo and Dongxu Fu and Jos{\'e} M. Fuentes and Juan Fueyo and Yoshio Fujitani and Yuuki Fujiwara and Mikihiro Fujiya and Mitsunori Fukuda and Simone Fulda and Carmela Fusco and Bożena Gabryel and Matthias Gaestel and Philippe Gailly and Małgorzata Gajewska and Sehamuddin Galadari and Gad Galili and Inmaculada Galindo and Mar{\'i}a F. Galindo and Giovanna Galliciotti and Lorenzo Galluzzi and Luca Galluzzi and Vincent Galy and Noor Gammoh and Samuel E. Gandy and Anand K. Ganesan and Swamynathan Ganesan and Ian G. Ganley and Monique Gannag{\'e} and Fen-Biao Gao and Feng Gao and Jian Xin Gao and Lorena Garc{\'i}a Nannig and Eleonora Garc{\'i}a V{\'e}scovi and Marina Garc{\'i}a-Mac{\'i}a and Carmen Garcia-Ruiz and Abhishek D Garg and Pramod K. Garg and Ricardo Gargini and Nils C. Gassen and Dami{\'a}n Gatica and Evelina Gatti and Julie Gavard and Evripidis Gavathiotis and Liang Ge and Pengfei Ge and Shengfang Ge and Po-Wu Gean and Vania Gelmetti and Armando A. Genazzani and Jiefei Geng and Pascal Genschik and Lisa Gerner and Jason E. Gestwicki and David A. Gewirtz and Saeid Ghavami and Eric Ghigo and Debabrata Ghosh and Anna Maria Giammarioli and Francesca Giampieri and Claudia Giampietri and Alexandra Giatromanolaki and Derrick Gibbings and Lara Gibellini and Spencer B. Gibson and Vanessa Ginet and Antonio Giordano and Flaviano Giorgini and Elisa Giovannetti and Stephen E. Girardin and Suzana Gispert and Sandy Giuliano and Candece L Gladson and {\'A}lvaro Glavic and Martin E. Gleave and Nelly Godefroy and Robert M. Gogal and Kuppan Gokulan and Gustavo Henrique Goldman and Delia Goletti and Michael S. Goligorsky and Aldrin V. Gomes and L{\'i}gia C. Gomes and Hernando G{\'o}mez and Candelaria Gomez-Manzano and Rub{\'e}n G{\'o}mez-S{\'a}nchez and Dawit A. P. Gonçalves and Ebru Goncu and Qingqiu Gong and C{\'e}line Gongora and Carlos B. Gonzalez and Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre and Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo and Rosa A Gonz{\'a}lez-Polo and Ing Swie Goping and Carlos M. Gorbea and Nikolai V Gorbunov and Daphne R. Goring and Adrienne M Gorman and Sharon M. Gorski and Sandro Goruppi and Shino Goto-Yamada and Cecilia Gotor and Roberta A. Gottlieb and Illana Gozes and Devrim Gozuacik and Yacine Graba and Martin Graef and Giovanna Elvira Granato and Gary Dean Grant and Steven Grant and Giovanni Luca Gravina and Douglas R. Green and Alexander Greenhough and Michael T Greenwood and Benedetto Grimaldi and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Gros and Charles Grose and Jean-François Groulx and Florian Gruber and Paolo Grumati and Tilman Grune and Jun-Lin Guan and Kun Liang Guan and Barbara Guerra and Carlos Guill{\'e}n and Kailash Gulshan and Jan Gunst and Chuanyong Guo and Lei Guo and Ming Guo and Wenjie Guo and Xu-guang Guo and Andrea A. Gust and {\AA}sa B Gustafsson and Elaine Gutierrez and Maximiliano G. Gutierrez and Ho-Shin Gwak and Albert Haas and James E. Haber and Shinji Hadano and Monica Hagedorn and David Hahn and Andrew J. Halayko and Anne Hamacher-Brady and Kozo Hamada and Ahmed Hamai and Andrea Hamann and Maho Hamasaki and Isabelle Hamer and Qutayba Hamid and Ester M. Hammond and Feng Han and Weidong Han and James T. Handa and John A. Hanover and Malene Hansen and Masaru Harada and Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovi{\'c} and J. Wade Harper and Abdel Halim Harrath and Adrian L. Harris and James Harris and Udo Hasler and Peter Hasselblatt and Kazuhisa Hasui and Robert G. Hawley and Teresa S. Hawley and Congcong He and Cynthia Y. He and Fengtian He and Gu He and Rong-Rong He and Xian-hui He and You-Wen He and Yu-Ying He and Joan K Heath and M. J H{\'e}bert and Robert A. Heinzen and G. Vignir Helgason and Michael T. Hensel and Elizabeth P. Henske and Chengtao Her and Paul K. Herman and Agust{\'i}n Hern{\'a}ndez and Carlos Hern{\'a}ndez and Sonia Hern{\'a}ndez‐Tiedra and Claudio Hetz and P Robin Hiesinger and Katsumi Higaki and Sabine Hilfiker and Bradford G. Hill and Joseph A. Hill and William D Hill and Keisuke Hino and Daniel Hofius and Paul Hofman and G{\"u}nter U. H{\"o}glinger and J{\"o}rg H{\"o}hfeld and Marina K. Holz and Yonggeun Hong and David A. Hood and Jeroen J M Hoozemans and Thorsten Hoppe and Chin-Yuan Hsu and Chin-Yuan Hsu and Li-Chung Hsu and Dong Hu and Guochang Hu and Hong Ming Hu and Hong Ming Hu and Ming Chang Hu and Yu-Chen Hu and Zhuo-wei Hu and Fang Hua and Ya-wei Hua and Canhua Huang and Huey-Lan Huang and Kuo-How Huang and Kuo-Yang Huang and Shile Huang and Shiqian Huang and Wei‐Pang Huang and Yi-ran Huang and Yong Huang and Yunfei Huang and Tobias B. Huber and Patricia Huebbe and Won-Ki Huh and Juha J. Hulmi and Gang Min Hur and James H. Hurley and Zvenyslava Husak and Sabah N A Hussain and Salik Hussain and Jung Jin Hwang and Seungmin Hwang and Thomas I. S. Hwang and Atsuhiro Ichihara and Yuzuru Imai and Carol Imbriano and Megumi Inomata and Takeshi Into and Valentina Iovane and Juan Lucio Iovanna and Renato V. Iozzo and Nancy Y. Ip and Javier E. Irazoqui and Pablo Iribarren and Yoshitaka Isaka and Aleksandra J. Isakovic and Harry Ischiropoulos and Jeffrey S. Isenberg and Mohammad Ishaq and Hiroyuki Ishida and Isao Ishii and Jane E. Ishmael and C. Isidoro and Ken-ichi Isobe and Erika Isono and Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas and Koji Itahana and Eisuke Itakura and Andrei I. Ivanov and Anand Krishnan V Iyer and Jos{\'e} M Izquierdo and Yotaro Izumi and Valentina Izzo and Marja J{\"a}{\"a}ttel{\"a} and Nadia Jaber and Daniel J. Jackson and William T. Jackson and Tony George Jacob and Thomas S. Jacques and Chinnaswamy Jagannath and Ashish Jain and Nihar Ranjan Jana and Byoung Kuk Jang and Alkesh Jani and Bassam Janji and Paulo R. Jannig and Patric Jan Jansson and Steve Jean and Marina Jendrach and Ju-Hong Jeon and Niels Jessen and Eui-Bae Jeung and Kailiang Jia and Lijun Jia and Hongchi Jiang and Hongchi Jiang and Liwen Jiang and Teng Jiang and Xiaoyan Jiang and Xuejun Jiang and Xuejun Jiang and Ying Jiang and Yongjun Jiang and Alberto Jim{\'e}nez and Cheng Jin and Hongchuan Jin and Lei Jin and Meiyan Jin and Shengkan Jin and Umesh K. Jinwal and Eun-Kyeong Jo and Terje Johansen and Daniel E Johnson and Gail V. W. Johnson and James D. Johnson and Eric Jonasch and Chris Jones and Leo A. B. Joosten and Joaqu{\'i}n Jord{\'a}n and Anna‐Maria Joseph and Bertrand Joseph and Annie Margaretha Joubert and Dianwen Ju and Jingfang Ju and Hsueh-Fen Juan and Katrin Juenemann and G{\'a}bor Juh{\'a}sz and Hye Seung Jung and Jae U. Jung and Yong-Keun Jung and Heinz Jungbluth and Matthew Jose Justice and Barry Jutten and Nadeem O. Kaakoush and Kai Kaarniranta and Allen Kaasik and Tomohiro Kabuta and Bertrand Kaeffer and Katarina K{\aa}gedal and Alon Kahana and Shingo Kajimura and Or Kakhlon and Manjula Kalia and Dhananjaya V. Kalvakolanu and Yoshiaki Kamada and Konstantinos Kambas and Vitaliy O Kaminskyy and Harm H. Kampinga and Mustapha Kandouz and Chanhee Kang and Rui Kang and Tae-Cheon Kang and Tomotake Kanki and Thirumala‐Devi Kanneganti and Haruo Kanno and Anumantha G. Kanthasamy and Marc Kantorow and Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos and Orsolya Kapuy and Vassiliki Karantza and Md. Razaul Karim and Parimal Karmakar and Arthur Kaser and Susmita Kaushik and Thomas H Kawula and A. Kaynar and Po-Yuan Ke and Zun-Ji Ke and John H. Kehrl and Kate E Keller and Jongsook Kim Kemper and Anne K. Kenworthy and Oliver Kepp and Andreas Kern and Santosh Kesari and David Kessel and Robin Ketteler and Isis C Kettelhut and Bilon Khambu and Muzamil Majid Khan and V. K. Khandelwal and Sangeeta Khare and Juliann G. Kiang and Amy A. Kiger and Akio Kihara and Arianna L. Kim and Cheol Hyeon Kim and Deok Ryong Kim and Do-Hyung Kim and Eung Kweon Kim and Hye Young Kim and Hyung-Ryong Kim and Jae‐Sung Kim and Jeong Hun Kim and Jin Cheon Kim and Jin Hyoung Kim and Kwang Woon Kim and Michael D. Kim and Moon‐Moo Kim and Peter Kijun Kim and Seong Who Kim and Soo-Youl Kim and Yongsun Kim and Yonghyun Kim and Adi Kimchi and Alec C. Kimmelman and Tomonori Kimura and Jason S. King and Karla Kirkegaard and Vladimir Kirkin and Lorrie A Kirshenbaum and Shuji Kishi and Yasuo Kitajima and Katsuhiko Kitamoto and Yasushi Kitaoka and Kaio Kitazato and Rudolf Andr{\'e} Kley and Walter T Klimecki and Michael Klinkenberg and Jochen Klucken and Helene Kn{\ae}velsrud and Erwin Knecht and Laura Knuppertz and Jiunn-Liang Ko and Satoru Kobayashi and Jan Christoph Koch and Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo and Ulrich Koenig and Young Ho Koh and Katja Köhler and Sepp D. Kohlwein and Masato Koike and Masaaki Komatsu and Eiki Kominami and Dexin Kong and Hee Jeong Kong and Eumorphia G Konstantakou and Benjamin T. Kopp and Tam{\'a}s Korcsm{\'a}ros and Laura T Korhonen and Viktor I. Korolchuk and Nadezhda V. Koshkina and Yanjun Kou and Michael I. Koukourakis and Constantinos Koumenis and Attila Lajos Kov{\'a}cs and Tibor Kov{\'a}cs and Werner J. Kovacs and Daisuke Koya and Claudine Kraft and Dimitri Krainc and Helmut Kramer and Tamara Kravic-Stevovic and Wilhelm Krek and Carole Kretz-remy and Roswitha Krick and Malathi Krishnamurthy and Janos Kriston-Vizi and Guido Kroemer and Michael C. Kruer and Rejko Kruger and Nicholas T. Ktistakis and Kazuyuki Kuchitsu and Christian Kuhn and Addanki P. Kumar and Anuj Kumar and Ashok Kumar and Deepak Kumar and Dhiraj Kumar and Rakesh Kumar and Sharad Kumar and Mondira Kundu and Hsing-Jien Kung and Atsushi Kuno and Sheng-Han Kuo and Jeff Kuret and Tino Kurz and Terry Kwok and Taeg Kyu Kwon and Yong Tae Kwon and Irene Kyrmizi and Albert R. La Spada and Frank Lafont and Tim Lahm and Aparna Lakkaraju and Truong Nguyen Anh Lam and Trond Lamark and Steve Lancel and Terry H. Landowski and Darius J R Lane and Jon D. Lane and Cinzia Lanzi and Pierre Lapaquette and Louis R. Lapierre and Jocelyn Laporte and Johanna Laukkarinen and Gordon W Laurie and Sergio Lavandero and Lena Lavie and Matthew J LaVoie and Betty Yuen Kwan Law and Helen Ka Wai Law and Kelsey B. Law and Robert Layfield and Pedro A. Lazo and Laurent Le Cam and Karine G. Le Roch and Herv{\'e} Le Stunff and Vijittra Leardkamolkarn and Marc Lecuit and Byung-Hoon Lee and Che-Hsin Lee and Erinna F Lee and Gyun Min Lee and He-Jin Lee and Hsinyu Lee and Jae Keun Lee and Jongdae Lee and Ju-Hyun Lee and Jun Hee Lee and Michael Lee and Myung-Shik Lee and Patty J. Lee and Sam W. Lee and Seung-Jae Lee and Shiow-Ju Lee and Stella Y. Lee and Sug Hyung Lee and Sung Sik Lee and Sung-Joon Lee and Sunhee Lee and Ying-Ray Lee and Yong J. Lee and Young Hyun Lee and Christiaan Leeuwenburgh and Sylvain Lefort and Renaud Legouis and Jinzhi Lei and Qunying Lei and David A. Leib and Gil Leibowitz and Istvan Lekli and St{\'e}phane D. Lemaire and John J. Lemasters and Marius K. Lemberg and Antoinette Lemoine and Shuilong Leng and Guido Lenz and Paola Lenzi and Lilach Orly Lerman and Daniele Lettieri Barbato and Julia I-Ju Leu and Hing Y. Leung and Beth Levine and Patrick A. Lewis and Frank Lezoualc’h and Chi Li and Faqiang Li and Feng-Jun Li and Jun Li and Ke Li and Lian Li and Min Li and Min Li and Qiang Li and Rui Li and Sheng Li and Wei Li and Wei Li and Xiaotao Li and Yumin Li and Jiqin Lian and Chengyu Liang and Qiangrong Liang and Yulin Liao and Joana Liberal and Pawel P. Liberski and Pearl P Y Lie and Andrew P. Lieberman and Hyunjung Jade Lim and Kah-Leong Lim and Kyu Lim and Raquel T Lima and Chang-Shen Lin and Chiou-Feng Lin and Fang Lin and Fang Lin and Fu-cheng Lin and Kui Lin and Kwang-Huei Lin and Peihui Lin and Tianwei Lin and Wan-Wan Lin and Yee‐Shin Lin and Yong Loo Lin and Rafael Linden and D. B. Lindholm and Lisa M. Lindqvist and Paul Lingor and Andreas Linkermann and Lance A. Liotta and Marta Lipinski and Vitor A. Lira and Michael P Lisanti and Paloma B. Liton and Bo Liu and Chong Liu and Chun-Feng Liu and Fei Liu and Hung-Jen Liu and Jianxun Liu and Jingjing Liu and Jing-Lan Liu and Ke Liu and Leyuan Liu and Liang Liu and Quentin Liu and Rong-Yu Liu and Shiming Liu and Shuwen Liu and Wei Liu and Xian-de Liu and Xiangguo Liu and Xiaohong Liu and Xinfeng Liu and Xu Liu and Xueqin Liu and Yang Liu and Yule Liu and Zexian Liu and Zhe Liu and Juan P Liuzzi and G{\'e}rard Lizard and Mila Ljuji{\'c} and Irfan J. Lodhi and Susan E. Logue and Bal L. Lokeshwar and Yun Chau Long and Sagar Lonial and Ben Loos and Carlos L{\'o}pez-Ot{\'i}n and Cristina L{\'o}pez-Vicario and Mar Lorente and Philip L. Lorenzi and P{\'e}ter Lőrincz and Marek J Los and Michael T. Lotze and Penny Lovat and Binfeng Lu and Bo Lu and Jiahong Lu and Qing Lu and Shengjian Lu and Shuyan Lu and Yingying Lu and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Luciano and Shirley Luckhart and John Milton Lucocq and Paula Ludovico and Aurelia Lugea and Nicholas W. Lukacs and Julian J. Lum and Anders Henrik Lund and Honglin Luo and Jia Luo and Shouqing Luo and Claudio Luparello and Timothy J. Lyons and Jianjie Ma and Yi-de Ma and Yong Ma and Zhenyi Ma and Juliano Machado and Glaucia Maria Machado-Santelli and Fernando Macian and Gustavo C Macintosh and Jeffrey P. MacKeigan and Kay F Macleod and John D. MacMicking and Lee Ann MacMillan-Crow and Frank Madeo and Muniswamy Madesh and Julio Madrigal-Matute and Akiko Maeda and Tatsuya Maeda and Gustavo H.B. Maegawa and Emilia Maellaro and Hannelore Maes and Marta Magariños and Kenneth Maiese and Tapas Kumar Maiti and Luigi Maiuri and Maria Chiara Maiuri and Carl G. Maki and Roland Malli and Walter Malorni and Alina Maloyan and Fathia Mami-Chouaib and Na Man and Joseph D. Mancias and Eva-Maria Mandelkow and Michael A. Mandell and Angelo A. Manfredi and Serge N Mani{\'e} and Claudia Manzoni and Kai Mao and Zixu Mao and Zongwan Mao and Philippe Marambaud and Anna Maria Marconi and Zvonimir Marelja and Gabriella Marf{\'e} and Marta Margeta and {\'E}va Margittai and Muriel C Mari and Francesca V. Mariani and Concepci{\'o} Marin and Sara Marinelli and Guillermo Mari{\~n}o and Ivanka Markovic and Rebecca T. Marquez and Alberto Maria Martelli and Sascha Martens and Katie R. Martin and Seamus J. Martin and Shaun Martin and Miguel A. Mart{\'i}n-Acebes and Paloma Martı́n-Sanz and Camille Martinand-Mari and Wim Martinet and Jennifer Martinez and Nuria Martinez-Lopez and Ubaldo e. Martinez-outschoorn and Mois{\'e}s Mart{\'i}nez-Vel{\'a}zquez and Marta Mart{\'i}nez-Vicente and Waleska Kerllen Martins and Hirosato Mashima and James A. Mastrianni and Giuseppe Matarese and Paola Matarrese and Roberto Mateo and Satoaki Matoba and Naomichi Matsumoto and Takehiko Matsushita and Akira Matsuura and Takeshi Matsuzawa and Mark P. Mattson and Soledad Matus and Norma Maugeri and Caroline Mauvezin and Andreas Mayer and Du{\vs}ica Maysinger and Guillermo D Mazzolini and Mary Kate McBrayer and Kimberly McCall and Craig McCormick and G M Mcinerney and Skye Courtney McIver and Sharon L. McKenna and John J. McMahon and Iain A. McNeish and Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou and Jan Paul Medema and Diego Luis Medina and Kl{\'a}ra Megyeri and Maryam Mehrpour and Jawahar L. Mehta and Yide Mei and Ute-christiane Meier and Alfred J. Meijer and Alicia Meléndez and Gerry Melino and Sonia Melino and Ed{\'e}sio Jos{\'e} Ten{\'o}rio de Melo and Mar{\'i}a Angeles Mena and Marc D. Meneghini and Javier A. Men{\'e}ndez and Regina Menezes and Liesu Meng and Linghua Meng and Songshu Meng and Rossella Menghini and A. Sue Menko and Rubem Fs Menna-Barreto and Manoj B. Menon and Marco Antonio Meraz-R{\'i}os and Giuseppe Merla and Luciano Merlini and Angelica M. Merlot and Andreas Meryk and Stefania Meschini and Joel N. Meyer and Man‐tian Mi and Chao-Yu Miao and Lucia Micale and Simon Michaeli and Carine Michiels and Anna Rita Migliaccio and Anastasia S Mihailidou and Dalibor Mijaljica and Katsuhiko Mikoshiba and Enrico Milan and Leonor Miller-Fleming and Gordon B. Mills and Ian G. Mills and Georgia Minakaki and Berge A. Minassian and Xiu-Fen Ming and Farida V. Minibayeva and Elena A. Minina and Justine D. Mintern and Saverio Minucci and Antonio Miranda-Vizuete and Claire H. Mitchell and Shigeki Miyamoto and Keisuke Miyazawa and Noboru Mizushima and Katarzyna Mnich and Baharia Mograbi and Simin Mohseni and Lu{\'i}s Ferreira Moita and Marco Molinari and Maurizio Molinari and Andreas Buch M{\o}ller and Bertrand Mollereau and Faustino Mollinedo and Marco Mongillo and Martha M. Monick and Serena Montagnaro and Craig Montell and Darren J. Moore and Michael N. Moore and Rodrigo Antonio Mora-Rodr{\'i}guez and Paula I. Moreira and Etienne Morel and Maria Beatrice Morelli and Sandra Moreno and Michael Jeffrey Morgan and Arnaud Moris and Yuji Moriyasu and Janna L. Morrison and Lynda A. Morrison and Eugenia Morselli and Jorge Moscat and Pope L. Moseley and Serge Mostowy and Elisa Motori and Denis Mottet and Jeremy C. Mottram and Charbel Moussa and Vassiliki E. Mpakou and Hasan Mukhtar and Jean M. Mulcahy Levy and Sylviane Muller and Raquel Mu{\~n}oz-Moreno and Cristina Mu{\~n}oz-Pinedo and Christian M{\"u}nz and Maureen E. Murphy and James T Murray and Aditya Murthy and Indira U. Mysorekar and Ivan Robert Nabi and Massimo Nabissi and Gustavo A. Nader and Yukitoshi Nagahara and Yoshitaka Nagai and Kazuhiro Nagata and Anika Nagelkerke and P{\'e}ter Nagy and Samisubbu R. Naidu and Sreejayan Nair and Hiroyasu Nakano and Hitoshi Nakatogawa and Meera Nanjundan and Gennaro Napolitano and Naweed I. Naqvi and Roberta Nardacci and Derek P. Narendra and Masashi Narita and Anna Chiara Nascimbeni and Ramesh Natarajan and Luiz Carlos Carvalho Navegantes and Steffan T Nawrocki and Taras Y. Nazarko and Volodymyr Y. Nazarko and Thomas Neill and Luca Maria Neri and Mihai G. Netea and Romana T. Netea-Maier and Bruno Miguel Neves and Paul A. Ney and Ioannis P. Nezis and Hang T.T. Nguyen and Huu Phuc Nguyen and Anne-Sophie Nicot and Hilde Nilsen and Per Nilsson and Mikio Nishimura and Ichizo Nishino and Mireia Niso-Santano and Hua Niu and Ralph A. Nixon and Vincent C. O. Njar and Takeshi Noda and Angelika A. Noegel and Elsie M Nolte and Erik Norberg and Koenraad K. Norga and Sakineh Kazemi Noureini and Shoji Notomi and Lucia Notterpek and Karin Nowikovsky and Nobuyuki Nukina and Thorsten N{\"u}rnberger and Valerie B. O’Donnell and Tracey R. O’Donovan and Peter J O'dwyer and Ina Oehme and Clara L. Oeste and Michinaga Ogawa and Besim Ogretmen and Yuji Ogura and Young Jun Oh and Masaki Ohmuraya and Takayuki Ohshima and Rani Ojha and Koji Okamoto and Toshiro Okazaki and F. J. Oliver and Karin M Ollinger and Stefan Olsson and Daniel P Orban and Paulina Ord{\'o}{\~n}ez and I Orhon and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Orosz and Eyleen J. O’Rourke and Helena Orozco and {\'A}ngel Luis Ortega and Elena Ortona and Laura D. Osellame and Junko Oshima and Shigeru Oshima and Heinz D. Osiewacz and Takanobu Otomo and Kinya Otsu and Jing-hsiung James Ou and Tiago Fleming Outeiro and Dong-yun Ouyang and Hongjia Ouyang and Michael Overholtzer and Michelle A. Ozbun and P. Hande Ozdinler and Bulent Ozpolat and Consiglia Pacelli and Paolo Paganetti and Guyl{\`e}ne Page and Gilles Pag{\`e}s and Ugo Pagnini and Beata Pająk and Stephen C. Pak and Karolina Pakos-Zebrucka and Nazzy Pakpour and Zdena Palkov{\'a} and Francesca Palladino and Kathrin Pallauf and Nicolas Pallet and Marta Palmieri and Soren Riis Paludan and Camilla Palumbo and Silvia Palumbo and Olatz Pampliega and Hongming Pan and Wei Pan and Theocharis Panaretakis and Aseem Pandey and Areti Pantazopoulou and Zuzana Papackova and Daniela Laura Papademetrio and Issidora S Papassideri and Alessio Papini and Nirmal Parajuli and Juli{\'a}n Pardo and Vrajesh V. Parekh and Giancarlo Parenti and Jong-In Park and Junsoo Park and Ohkmae K. Park and Roy Parker and Rosanna Parlato and Jan B. Parys and Katherine R Parzych and Jean-Max Pasquet and Beno{\^i}t Pasquier and Kishore B.S. Pasumarthi and Daniel Patschan and Cam Patterson and Sophie Pattingre and Scott Pattison and Arnim Pause and Hermann Pavenst{\"a}dt and Flaminia Pavone and Zully Pedrozo and Fernando J. Pe{\~n}a and Miguel A. Pe{\~n}alva and Mario Pende and Jianxin Peng and Fabio Penna and Josef M. Penninger and Anna Pensalfini and Salvatore Pepe and Gustavo J S Pereira and Paulo C Pereira and Ver{\'o}nica P{\'e}rez-de la Cruz and Mar{\'i}a Esther P{\'e}rez-P{\'e}rez and Diego R. P{\'e}rez-Rodr{\'i}guez and Dolores P{\'e}rez-Sala and C. Perier and Andras Perl and David H. Perlmutter and Ida Perrotta and Shazib Pervaiz and Maija Pesonen and Jeffrey E. Pessin and Godefridus J. Peters and Morten Petersen and Irina Petrache and Basil J Petrof and Goran Petrovski and James M Phang and Mauro Piacentini and Marina Pierdominici and Philippe Pierre and Valérie Pierrefite-Carle and Federico Pietrocola and Felipe X. Pimentel-Mui{\~n}os and Mario Pinar and Benjam{\'i}n Pineda and Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski and Marcello Pinti and Paolo Pinton and Bilal Piperdi and James M. Piret and Leonidas C. Platanias and Harald W. Platta and Edward D. Plowey and Stefanie P{\"o}ggeler and Marc Poirot and Peter Pol{\vc}ic and Angelo Poletti and Audrey H. Poon and Hana Popelka and Blagovesta Popova and Izabela Poprawa and Shibu M. Poulose and Joanna Poulton and Scott K. Powers and Ted Powers and Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio and Krisna Prak and Reinhild Prange and Mark C. Prescott and Muriel Priault and Sharon Prince and Richard L. Proia and Tassula Proikas-Cezanne and Holger Prokisch and Vasilis J. Promponas and Karin Przyklenk and Rosa Puertollano and Subbiah Pugazhenthi and Luigi Puglielli and Aurora Pujol and Julien Puyal and Dohun Pyeon and Xin Qi and Wenbin Qian and Zheng-Hong Qin and Yu Qiu and Ziwei Qu and Joe Quadrilatero and Frederick Quinn and Nina Raben and Hannah Rabinowich and Flavia Radogna and Michael J. Ragusa and Mohamed Rahmani and Komal Raina and Sasanka Ramanadham and Rajagopal Ramesh and Abdelhaq Rami and Sarron Randall-Demllo and Felix Randow and Hai Rao and V. Ashutosh Rao and Blake B. Rasmussen and Tobias M. Rasse and Edward A. Ratovitski and Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou and Swapan K. Ray and Babak Razani and Bruce H. 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Rosen and Philip C Rosenstiel and Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska and K A Roth and Ga{\"e}l Rou{\'e} and Mustapha Rouis and Kasper M. A. Rouschop and Daniel T. Ruan and Diego Ruano and David C. Rubinsztein and Edmund B. Rucker and Assaf Rudich and Emil Rudolf and Ruediger Rudolf and Markus Ruegg and Carmen Ruiz-Roldán and Avnika A. Ruparelia and Paola Rusmini and David W. Russ and Gian Luigi Russo and Giuseppe Russo and Rossella Russo and Tor Erik Rusten and Victoria Ryabovol and Kevin M. Ryan and Stefan W Ryter and David M. Sabatini and Michael Sacher and Carsten Sachse and Michael N. Sack and Junichi Sadoshima and Paul Saftig and Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg and Sumit Sahni and Pothana Saikumar and Tsunenori Saito and Tatsuya Saitoh and Koichi Sakakura and Machiko Sakoh-Nakatogawa and Yasuhito Sakuraba and Mar{\'i}a Salazar-Roa and Paolo Salomoni and Ashok Kumar Saluja and Paul M. Salvaterra and Rosa Salvioli and Afshin Samali and Anthony M J Sanchez and Jos{\'e} Antonio S{\'a}nchez-Alc{\'a}zar and Ricardo S{\'a}nchez-Prieto and Marco Sandri and Miguel Angel Sanju{\'a}n and Stefano Santaguida and Laura Santambrogio and Giorgio Santoni and Cl{\'a}udia Nunes dos Santos and Shweta Saran and Marco Sardiello and Graeme Sargent and Pallabi Sarkar and Sovan Sarkar and Maria Rosa Sarrias and Minnie M. Sarwal and Chihiro Sasakawa and Motoko Sasaki and Mikl{\'o}s Sass and Ken Sato and Miyuki Sato and Joseph A. Satriano and Niramol Savaraj and Svetlana Saveljeva and Liliana Schaefer and Ulrich E. Schaible and Michael Scharl and Hermann M. Schatzl and Randy Schekman and Wiep Scheper and Alfonso Schiavi and Hyman M. Schipper and Hana Schmeisser and Jens Schmidt and Ingo Schmitz and Bianca Schneider and Emily Schneider and Jaime L. Schneider and Eric A. Schon and Miriam J. Sch{\"o}nenberger and Axel H. Sch{\"o}nthal and Daniel F. Schorderet and Bernd Schr{\"o}der and Sebastian Schuck and Ryan J Schulze and Melanie Schwarten and Thomas L. Schwarz and Sebastiano Sciarretta and Kathleen W. Scotto and A. Ivana Scovassi and Robert A. Screaton and M. A. Screen and Hugo Seca and Simon Sedej and Laura Segatori and Nava Segev and Per O. Seglen and Jose M. Segu{\'i}-Simarro and Juan Segura-Aguilar and Ekihiro Seki and Iban Seiliez and Christian Sell and Clay F. Semenkovich and Gregg L. Semenza and Utpal Sen and Andreas L. Serra and Ana Serrano-Puebla and Hiromi Sesaki and Takao Setoguchi and Carmine Settembre and John Shacka and Ayesha N. Shajahan-Haq and Irving M. Shapiro and Shweta Sharma and Hua She and C-K James Shen and Chiung-Chyi Shen and Han-Ming Shen and Sanbing Shen and Wei-li Shen and Rui Sheng and Xianyong Sheng and Zu-Hang Sheng and Trevor G Shepherd and Junyan Shi and Qiang Shi and Qinghua Shi and Yuguang Shi and Shusaku Shibutani and Kenichi Shibuya and Yoshihiro Shidoji and Jeng Jer Shieh and Chwen-Ming Shih and Yohta Shimada and Shigeomi Shimizu and Dong Wook Shin and Mari L. Shinohara and Michiko Shintani and Takahiro Shintani and Tetsuo Shioi and Ken Shirabe and Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov and Orian S. Shirihai and Gordon C. Shore and Chih-Wen Shu and Deepak Shukla and Andriy A. Sibirny and Valentina Sica and Christina J. Sigurdson and Einar M. Sigurdsson and Puran Singh Sijwali and Beata Sikorska and Wilian A. Silveira and Sandrine Silvente-Poirot and Gary A. 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Travassos and Gemma Triola and Durga Nand Tripathi and Daniela Trisciuoglio and Rodrigo Troncoso and Ioannis P. Trougakos and Anita Carmen Truttmann and Kuen‐Jer Tsai and Mario P. Tschan and Yi-Hsin Tseng and Takayuki Tsukuba and Allan Tsung and Andrey S Tsvetkov and Shuiping Tu and Hsing-Yu Tuan and Marco Tucci and David A. Tumbarello and Boris Turk and Vito Turk and Robin F. B. Turner and Anders Aune Tveita and Suresh C Tyagi and Makoto Ubukata and Yasuo Uchiyama and Andrej Udelnow and Takashi Ueno and Midori Umekawa and Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji and Benjamin R. Underwood and Christian Ungermann and Rodrigo Portes Ureshino and Ryo Ushioda and Vladimir N. Uversky and N{\'e}stor L Uzc{\'a}tegui and Thomas Vaccari and Maria I Vaccaro and Libu{\vs}e V{\'a}chov{\'a} and Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg and Rut Valdor and Enza Maria Valente and François M. Vallette and {\'A}ngela M. Valverde and Greet Van den Berghe and Ludo Van Den Bosch and Gijs Robert van den Brink and F. 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Voitsekhovskaja and Clarissa von Haefen and Karin von Schwarzenberg and Daniel E. Voth and Val{\'e}rie Vouret-Craviari and Kristina A. M. Vuori and Jatin M. Vyas and Christian Waeber and Cheryl Lyn Walker and Mark J. Walker and Jochen Walter and Lei Wan and Xiangbo Wan and Bo Wang and Caihong Wang and Chao-Yung Wang and Chengshu Wang and Chenran Wang and Chuangui Wang and Dong Wang and Fen Wang and Fuxin Wang and Guanghui Wang and Haijing Wang and Haichao Wang and Hong-Gang Wang and Hongmin Wang and Horng-Dar Wang and Jing Wang and Junjun Wang and Mei Qing Wang and Mei Qing Wang and Pei-Yu Wang and Peng Wang and Richard C. Wang and Shuo Wang and Ting-Fang Wang and Xian Wang and Xiaojia Wang and Xiao-wei Wang and Xin Wang and Xuejun Wang and Yan Wang and Yanming Wang and Ying Wang and Ying-Jan Wang and Yi-peng Wang and Yu Tian Wang and Yu Tian Wang and Yuqing Wang and Zhi-nong Wang and Pablo Wappner and Carl Ward and Diane M Ward and Gary Warnes and Hirotaka Watada and Yoshihisa Watanabe and Kei Watase and Timothy E. Weaver and Colin Weekes and Jiwu Wei and Thomas Weide and Conrad C. Weihl and G{\"u}nther Weindl and Simone Nardin Weis and Long‐ping Wen and Xin Wen and Yunfei Wen and Benedikt Westermann and Cornelia M. Weyand and Anthony R. White and Eileen White and J Lindsay Whitton and Alexander J. Whitworth and Jo{\"e}lle Wiels and Franziska Wild and Manon E Wildenberg and Thomas E. Wileman and Deepti Srinivas Wilkinson and Simon Wilkinson and Dieter Willbold and Chris Williams and Katherine M Williams and Peter R. Williamson and Konstanze F. Winklhofer and Steven Sol Witkin and Stephanie E. Wohlgemuth and Thomas Wollert and Ernst J. Wolvetang and Esther Wong and G. William Wong and Richard W. Wong and Vincent Kam Wai Wong and Elizabeth A. Woodcock and Karen L Wright and Chunlai Wu and Defeng Wu and Gen Sheng Wu and Jian Wu and Junfang Wu and Mian Wu and Min Wu and Shengzhou or sheng-zhou wu and William K. K. Wu and Yaohua Wu and Zhenlong Wu and Cristina P. R. Xavier and Ramnik J. Xavier and Guixian Xia and Tian Xia and Weiliang Xia and Yong Xia and Hengyi Xiao and Jian Xiao and Shi Xiao and Wuhan Xiao and Chuan-Ming Xie and Zhiping Xie and Zhonglin Xie and Maria Xilouri and Yuyan Xiong and Chuanshan Xu and Congfeng Xu and Feng Xu and Haoxing Xu and Hongwei Xu and Jian Xu and Jianzhen Xu and Jinxian Xu and Liang Xu and Xiaolei Xu and Yang-qing Xu and Ye Xu and Zhi-xiang Xu and Ziheng Xu and Yu Xue and Takahiro Yamada and Ai Yamamoto and Koji Yamanaka and Shunhei Yamashina and Shigeko Yamashiro and Bing Yan and Bo Yan and Xianghua Yan and Zhen Yan and Yasuo Yanagi and Dun-Sheng Yang and Jin-Ming Yang and Liu Yang and Minghua Yang and Pei-Ming Yang and Pei-Ming Yang and Qian Yang and Wannian Yang and Wei Yuan Yang and Xuesong Yang and Yi Yang and Ying Yang and Zhifen Yang and Zhihong Yang and Mengqi Yao and Pamela J. Yao and Xiaofeng Yao and Zhenyu Yao and Zhiyuan Yao and Linda S. Yasui and Mingxiang Ye and Barry Yedvobnick and Behzad Yeganeh and Elizabeth S. Yeh and Patricia L. Yeyati and Fan Yi and Long Yi and Xiao-Ming Yin and Calvin K. Yip and Yeong-Min Yoo and Young Hyun Yoo and Seung-Yong Yoon and Ken-ichi Yoshida and Tamotsu Yoshimori and Ken H. Young and Huixin Yu and Jane J Yu and Jingjing Yu and Jun Yu and Li Yu and W. Haung Yu and Xiao-Fang Yu and Zheng-Ping Yu and Junying Yuan and Zhi-Min Yuan and Beatrice Y.J.T. Yue and Jianbo Yue and Zhenyu Yue and David N. Zacks and Eldad Zacksenhaus and Nadia Zaffaroni and Tania Zaglia and Zahra Zakeri and Vincent R. Zecchini and Jinsheng Zeng and Min Zeng and Qi Zeng and Antonis Zervos and Donna D. Zhang and Fan Zhang and Guo Chang Zhang and Guo-Chang Zhang and Hao Zhang and Hong Zhang and Hong Zhang and Hongbing Zhang and Jian Zhang and Jian Zhang and Jiangwei Zhang and Jianhua Zhang and Jing-pu Zhang and Li Zhang and Lin Zhang and Lin Zhang and Long Zhang and Mingyong Zhang and Xiang-Nan Zhang and Xu Dong Zhang and Yan Zhang and Yang Zhang and Yanjin Zhang and Yingmei Zhang and Yunjiao Zhang and Mei Zhao and Weili Zhao and Xiaonan Zhao and Yan G Zhao and Ying Zhao and Yongchao Zhao and Yu-xia Zhao and Zhendong Zhao and Zhizhuang Joe Zhao and De-xian Zheng and Xi-Long Zheng and Xiaoxiang Zheng and Boris Zhivotovsky and Qing Zhong and Guang-Zhou Zhou and Guofei Zhou and Huiping Zhou and Shufeng Zhou and Xu-jie Zhou and Hongxin Zhu and Hua Zhu and Wei-Guo Zhu and Wenhua Zhu and Xiao-Feng Zhu and Yuhua Zhu and Shi‐Mei Zhuang and Xiaohong Zhuang and Elio Ziparo and Christos E Zois and Teresa Zoladek and Wei-Xing Zong and Antonio Zorzano and Susu M. Zughaier},
  pages={1 - 222}
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there… 

Developing a set of guidelines for your research field: a practical approach

This Perspective explores some of these reasons for establishing a set of guidelines in a given research field, including standardizing nomenclature for better communication, improving reproducibility, and making it easier for newcomers to enter the field.

Molecular definitions of autophagy and related processes

A panel of leading experts in the field attempts here to define several autophagy‐related terms based on specific biochemical features to formulate recommendations that facilitate the dissemination of knowledge within and outside the field of autophagic research.

Progress and Challenges in the Use of MAP1LC3 as a Legitimate Marker for Measuring Dynamic Autophagy In Vivo

This review emphasizes the methods applied to measure (macro-)autophagy in tissue samples and in vivo via a protein, which centrally intervenes in the autophagy pathway, the microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (MAP1LC3), which is the most widely used marker and the first identified to associate with autophagosomal structures.

Methods for Measuring Autophagy in Mice

This chapter presents in this chapter a compendium of the current available methods to measure autophagy in mice, and discusses their advantages and limitations.

Standard Assays for the Study of Autophagy in the Ex Vivo Retina

Several methods used to assess autophagy in the retina in both physiological and pathological conditions are reviewed.

Blue-Print Autophagy in 2020: A Critical Review

This critical review provides an overview of the marine natural compounds, which have been reported to affect autophagy, and raises an important problem of standardization in the experimental design and data interpretation.

Inducing and Inhibiting Autophagy to Investigate Its Interactions with MIF.

Protocols for studying the interactions between MIF and autophagy, including for the induction and inhibition of autophagic and measuring autophagosome biogenesis and maturation are presented.

Studying Autophagy in Zebrafish

An overview of different methods used to analyse autophagy in zebrafish—a relatively new model for studying autophophagy—is given and what has been done so far and possible future directions are discussed.



Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy

These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes

A set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes are presented.

Methods for Monitoring Autophagy from Yeast to Human

Current approaches that can be used to follow the overall process of autophagy, as well as individual steps, from yeast to human are discussed.

A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes (2nd edition)

A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms is developed to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors and chemical agents that induce or inhibit Autophagy.

In search of an “autophagomometer”

This work has shown that macroautophagy is not only important in yeast but is necessary for diverse functions in plants and animals and needs to be understood in order to understand how it can be regulated physiologically and with exogenous agents.

Potential therapeutic applications of autophagy

A better understanding of autophagy is needed to allow its manipulation for therapeutic purposes, and new insights into the molecular mechanisms are now leading to the discovery of exciting new potential drug targets.

Quantitation of autophagy by luciferase release assay

A cell-based assay that specifically measures proteolytic cleavage of a tripartite sensor protein by the autophagy protease ATG4B is developed and it is proposed that this type of assay will be suitable for genome-wide functional screens and in vivo analysis of Autophagy.

A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes

A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms is developed to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors or chemical agents that induce or inhibit Autophagy.