Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

@article{Klionsky2016GuidelinesFT,
  title={Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)},
  author={D. Klionsky and Kotb Abdelmohsen and A. Abe and M. Abedin and H. Abeliovich and Abraham Acevedo Arozena and H. Adachi and C. Adams and P. Adams and K. Adeli and P. Adhihetty and S. Adler and G. Agam and R. Agarwal and M. Aghi and M. Agnello and P. Agostinis and P. Aguilar and J. Aguirre-Ghiso and E. Airoldi and S. Ait-Si-Ali and Takahiko Akematsu and E. Akporiaye and M. Al-Rubeai and G. M. Albaiceta and C. Albanese and D. Albani and M. Albert and J. Aldudo and H. Alg{\"u}l and Mehrdad Alirezaei and I. Alloza and A. Almasan and Maylin Almonte-Beceril and E. Alnemri and C. Alonso and N. Altan-Bonnet and D. Altieri and Silvia Alvarez and L. {\'A}lvarez-Erviti and Sandro Alves and G. Amadoro and A. Amano and C. Amantini and S. Ambrosio and I. Amelio and A. Amer and M. Amessou and A. Amon and Zhenyi An and F. Anania and S. U. Andersen and U. Andley and C. Andreadi and N. Andrieu-Abadie and A. Anel and D. Ann and S. Anoopkumar-Dukie and M. Antonioli and H. Aoki and N. Apostolova and S. Aquila and K. Aquilano and K. Araki and E. Arama and A. Aranda and J. Araya and A. Arcaro and E. Arias and H. Arimoto and Aileen R. Ariosa and J. Armstrong and Thierry Arnould and I. Arsov and K. Asanuma and V. Askanas and E. Asselin and Ryuichiro Atarashi and S. Atherton and J. Atkin and L. Attardi and P. Auberger and G. Auburger and L. Aurelian and R. Autelli and L. Avagliano and M. Avantaggiati and L. Avrahami and S. Awale and N. Azad and T. Bachetti and J. Backer and Dong-Hun Bae and J. Bae and O. Bae and Soo Han Bae and E. Baehrecke and Seung-Hoon Baek and Stephen Baghdiguian and A. Bagniewska-Zadworna and H. Bai and J. Bai and X. Bai and Y. Bailly and K. N. Balaji and W. Balduini and A. Ballabio and R. Balzan and R. Banerjee and G. B{\'a}nhegyi and Haijun Bao and B. Barbeau and M. Barrachina and E. Barreiro and B. Bartel and A. Bartolom{\'e} and D. Bassham and M. Bassi and R. Bast and A. Basu and M. Batista and H. Batoko and M. Battino and Kyle A. Bauckman and B. L. Baumgarner and K. Bayer and R. Beale and J. Beaulieu and G. Beck and Christoph Becker and J. Beckham and P. B{\'e}dard and P. Bednarski and T. Begley and C. Behl and C. Behrends and G. Behrens and K. Behrns and Eloy Bejarano and Amine Belaid and F. Belleudi and G. B{\'e}nard and G. Berchem and D. Bergamaschi and Matteo Bergami and B. Berkhout and L. Berliocchi and Am{\'e}lie Bernard and Monique Bernard and F. Bernassola and A. Bertolotti and A. S. Bess and S{\'e}bastien Besteiro and S. Bettuzzi and Savita Bhalla and S. Bhattacharyya and S. Bhutia and Caroline Biagosch and M. Bianchi and M. Biard-Piechaczyk and Viktor A Billes and C. Bincoletto and Baris Bingol and Sara W. Bird and M. Bitoun and I. Bjedov and C. Blackstone and Lionel Blanc and G. Blanco and H. K. Blomhoff and Emilio Boada-Romero and Stefan B{\"o}ckler and M. Boes and K. Boesze-Battaglia and L. Boise and A. Bolino and Andrea Boman and P. Bonaldo and M. Bordi and J. Bosch and L. Botana and J. Botti and G. Bou and M. Bouche and M. Bouchecareilh and M. Boucher and M. Boulton and S. Bouret and P. Boya and M. Boyer-Guittaut and P. Bozhkov and N. Brady and V. Braga and C. Brancolini and G. Braus and J. M. Bravo-San Pedro and Lisa A Brennan and E. Bresnick and P. Brest and D. Bridges and M. Bringer and M. Brini and G. Brito and B. Brodin and P. Brookes and E. Brown and K. Brown and H. Broxmeyer and A. Bruhat and P. Brum and J. Brumell and N. Brunetti-Pierri and R. Bryson-Richardson and S. Buch and A. Buchan and H. Budak and D. Bulavin and S. Bultman and G. Bultynck and V. Bumbasirevic and Y. Burelle and R. Burke and M. Burmeister and Peter B{\"u}tikofer and L. Caberlotto and K. Cadwell and M. Cahova and Dongsheng Cai and J. Cai and Qian Cai and S. Calatayud and N. Camougrand and M. Campanella and G. Campbell and M. Campbell and Silvia Campello and R. Candau and I. Caniggia and L. Cantoni and L. Cao and A. Caplan and M. Caraglia and C. Cardinali and S. Cardoso and J. Carew and L. Carleton and C. Carlin and S. Carloni and S. Carlsson and D. Carmona-Guti{\'e}rrez and L. Carneiro and O. Carnevali and S. Carra and A. Carrier and Bernadette Carroll and Caty Casas and J. Casas and G. Cassinelli and P. Castets and S. Castro-Obreg{\'o}n and G. Cavallini and I. Ceccherini and F. Cecconi and A. Cederbaum and V. Ce{\~n}a and S. Cenci and C. Cerella and D. Cervia and S. Cetrullo and Hassan Chaachouay and H. Chae and A. Chagin and C. Chai and Gopal Chakrabarti and G. Chamilos and E. Chan and M. Chan and D. Chandra and Pallavi Chandra and Chih-Peng Chang and R. Chang and T. Chang and J. Chatham and S. Chatterjee and S. Chauhan and Y. Che and M. Cheetham and R. Cheluvappa and C. Chen and Gang Chen and G. Chen and Hong-zhuan Chen and Jeff W. Chen and Jian-Kang Chen and Min Chen and M. Chen and P. Chen and Q. Chen and Quan Chen and Shang-Der Chen and Si Chen and S. Chen and W. Chen and Wei-Jung Chen and Wenli Chen and X. Chen and Yau-Hung Chen and Y. Chen and Yue-Qin Chen and Yujie Chen and Zhen Chen and Zhong Chen and Alan Cheng and C. Cheng and H. Cheng and H. Cheong and S. Cherry and J. Chesney and C. Cheung and E. Chevet and Hsiang-Cheng Chi and S. Chi and F. Chiacchiera and H. Chiang and R. Chiarelli and M. Chiariello and M. Chieppa and L. Chin and M. Chiong and G. N. Chiu and D. Cho and Seong-Keun Cho and W. Cho and Yongyeon Cho and Y. Cho and A. Choi and E. Choi and Jayoung Choi and M. Choi and Seung-Il Choi and T. Chou and S. Chouaib and D. Choubey and V. Choubey and K. Chow and K. Chowdhury and C. Chu and T. Chuang and T. Chun and Hyewon Chung and Taijoon Chung and Y. Chung and Y. Chwae and V. Cianfanelli and R. Ciarcia and I. Ciechomska and M. Ciriolo and M. Cirone and S. Claerhout and M. Clague and J. Cl{\`a}ria and P. Clarke and R. Clarke and E. Clementi and C. Cleyrat and Miriam Cnop and E. Coccia and T. Cocco and P. Codogno and J. Coers and E. Cohen and D. Colecchia and Luisa Coletto and N. Coll and E. Colucci-Guyon and S. Comincini and M. Condello and Katherine L Cook and G. H. Coombs and Cynthia D. Cooper and J. M. Cooper and I. Coppens and M. Corasaniti and M. Corazzari and R. Corbal{\'a}n and Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau and M. Cordero and Cristina Corral-Ramos and O. Corti and A. Cossarizza and P. Costelli and S. Costes and S. Cotman and A. Coto-Montes and S. Cottet and E. Couve and L. Covey and L. Cowart and J. Cox and F. Coxon and C. Coyne and M. Cragg and R. Craven and T. Crepaldi and J. Crespo and A. Criollo and V. Crippa and M. Cruz and A. Cuervo and J. Cuezva and T. Cui and P. Cutillas and M. Czaja and M. Czyzyk-Krzeska and R. Dagda and U. Dahmen and C. Dai and W. Dai and Y. Dai and K. Dalby and L. Dalla Valle and G. Dalmasso and M. D’Amelio and M. Damme and A. Darfeuille‐Michaud and C. Dargemont and V. Darley-Usmar and S. Dasarathy and B. Dasgupta and S. Dash and C. Dass and H. Davey and L. Davids and D. D{\'a}vila and R. Davis and T. Dawson and V. Dawson and P. Daza and J. de Belleroche and P. de Figueiredo and R. C. B. Q. de Figueiredo and J. de la Fuente and L. De Martino and Antonella De Matteis and G. D. De Meyer and A. De Milito and M. De Santi and W. de Souza and V. De Tata and D. De Zio and J. Debnath and Reinhard Dechant and J. Decuypere and S. Deegan and B. Dehay and B. del Bello and Dominic P. Del Re and R. Delage-Mourroux and L. Delbridge and L. Deldicque and Elizabeth Delorme-Axford and Yizhen Deng and J. Dengjel and M. Denizot and P. Dent and C. Der and V. Deretic and Beno{\^i}t Derrien and E. Deutsch and T. Devarenne and R. Devenish and S. Di Bartolomeo and N. Di Daniele and F. Di Domenico and A. Di Nardo and S. Di Paola and A. Di Pietro and L. di Renzo and A. Diantonio and G. D{\'i}az-Araya and I. D{\'i}az-Laviada and M. Diaz-Meco and J. D{\'i}az-Nido and C. Dickey and R. C. Dickson and M. Diederich and P. Digard and I. Dikic and S. P. Dinesh-Kumar and C. Ding and Wen-Xing Ding and Z. Ding and L. Dini and J. Distler and A. Diwan and M. Djavaheri-Mergny and K. Dmytruk and R. Dobson and V. Doetsch and K. Dokładny and S. Dokudovskaya and M. Donadelli and X. C. Dong and X. Dong and Z. Dong and T. Donohue and K. Doran and G. D'Orazi and G. Dorn and V. Dosenko and S. Dridi and L. Drucker and Jie Du and L. Du and Andr{\'e} du Toit and P. Dua and L. Duan and P. Duann and V. Dubey and M. Duchen and M. Duchosal and H. Duez and I. Dugail and V. Dumit and Mara C Duncan and E. Dunlop and W. Dunn and N. Dupont and L. Dupuis and R. V. Dur{\'a}n and Thomas M. Durcan and S. Duvezin-Caubet and U. Duvvuri and Vinay V Eapen and D. Ebrahimi-Fakhari and A. Echard and L. Eckhart and C. Edelstein and A. Edinger and L. Eichinger and T. Eisenberg and A. Eisenberg-Lerner and N. Eissa and W. El-Deiry and V. El-Khoury and Z. Elazar and H. Eldar-Finkelman and C. Elliott and E. Emanuele and U. Emmenegger and N. Engedal and A. Engelbrecht and S. Engelender and J. Enserink and R. Erdmann and J. Erenpreisa and R. Eri and J. Eriksen and A. Erman and R. Escalante and E. Eskelinen and L. Espert and L. Esteban-Mart{\'i}nez and Thomas J. Evans and M. Fabri and G. Fabri{\`a}s and C. Fabrizi and A. Facchiano and N. F{\ae}rgeman and A. Faggioni and W. D. Fairlie and Chunhai Fan and Daping Fan and J. Fan and S. Fang and M. Fanto and A. Fanzani and T. Farkas and M. Faure and F. B. Favier and H. Fearnhead and M. Federici and E. Fei and T. Felizardo and Hua Feng and Y. Feng and Yuchen Feng and T. Ferguson and {\'A}. Fern{\'a}ndez and M. Fern{\'a}ndez-Barrena and J. Fern{\'a}ndez-Checa and A. Fern{\'a}ndez-L{\'o}pez and M. Fern{\'a}ndez-Zapico and O. F{\'e}ron and E. Ferraro and Carmen V Ferreira-Halder and L. Fesus and R. Feuer and F. Fiesel and E. Filippi-Chiela and G. Filomeni and G. Fimia and J. Fingert and S. Finkbeiner and T. Finkel and F. Fiorito and P. Fisher and M. Flajolet and F. Flamigni and Oliver Florey and S. Florio and R. Floto and M. Folini and Carlo Follo and E. Fon and F. Fornai and F. Fortunato and A. Fraldi and R. Franco and A. François and L. Frankel and I. Fraser and N. Frey and D. Freyssenet and C. Frezza and S. Friedman and D. Frigo and D. Fu and J. Fuentes and J. Fueyo and Y. Fujitani and Yuuki Fujiwara and M. Fujiya and M. Fukuda and S. Fulda and C. Fusco and B. Gabryel and M. Gaestel and P. Gailly and M. Gajewska and S. Galadari and G. Galili and I. Galindo and M. Galindo and G. Galliciotti and L. Galluzzi and V. Galy and Noor Gammoh and S. Gandy and A. Ganesan and Swamynathan Ganesan and I. Ganley and M. Gannag{\'e} and F. Gao and Jianxin Gao and Lorena Garc{\'i}a Nannig and E. Garc{\'i}a V{\'e}scovi and M. Garc{\'i}a-Mac{\'i}a and C. Garcia-Ruiz and Abhishek D Garg and P. Garg and R. Gargini and N. Gassen and D. Gatica and E. Gatti and J. Gavard and E. Gavathiotis and Liang Ge and P. Ge and S. Ge and P. Gean and V. Gelmetti and A. Genazzani and J. Geng and P. Genschik and L. Gerner and J. Gestwicki and D. Gewirtz and S. Ghavami and E. Ghigo and D. Ghosh and A. M. Giammarioli and F. Giampieri and C. Giampietri and A. Giatromanolaki and D. Gibbings and L. Gibellini and S. Gibson and V. Ginet and A. Giordano and F. Giorgini and E. Giovannetti and S. Girardin and S. Gispert and S. Giuliano and C. Gladson and A. Glavic and M. Gleave and N. Godefroy and R. Gogal and K. Gokulan and G. Goldman and D. Goletti and M. Goligorsky and A. Gomes and L{\'i}gia C. Gomes and H. Gomez and C. Gomez-Manzano and R. G{\'o}mez-S{\'a}nchez and Dawit A. P. Gonçalves and E. Goncu and Qingqiu Gong and C. Gongora and Carlos B. Gonzalez and Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre and P. Gonzalez-Cabo and R. Gonz{\'a}lez-Polo and I. Goping and C. Gorbea and N. Gorbunov and D. Goring and A. Gorman and S. Gorski and S. Goruppi and Shino Goto-Yamada and C. Gotor and R. Gottlieb and I. Gozes and D. Gozuacik and Y. Graba and M. Graef and G. Granato and G. Grant and S. Grant and G. Gravina and D. Green and A. Greenhough and M. Greenwood and B. Grimaldi and F. Gros and C. Grose and Jean-François Groulx and F. Gruber and P. Grumati and T. Grune and J. Guan and K. Guan and B. Guerra and C. Guill{\'e}n and Kailash Gulshan and J. Gunst and Chuanyong Guo and Lei Guo and M. Guo and Wenjie Guo and Xu-Guang Guo and Andrea A. Gust and {\AA}. Gustafsson and Elaine Gutierrez and Maximiliano G. Gutierrez and H. Gwak and A. Haas and J. Haber and S. Hadano and M. Hagedorn and David Hahn and A. Halayko and A. Hamacher-Brady and K. Hamada and Ahmed Hamai and A. Hamann and M. Hamasaki and I. Hamer and Q. Hamid and E. Hammond and Feng Han and W. Han and J. Handa and J. Hanover and M. Hansen and M. Harada and L. Harhaji-Trajkovi{\'c} and J. Harper and A. Harrath and A. Harris and J. Harris and U. Hasler and P. Hasselblatt and K. Hasui and R. Hawley and T. Hawley and C. He and Feng-tian He and Gu He and R. He and X. He and You-Wen He and Y. He and J. Heath and M. H{\'e}bert and R. Heinzen and G. V. Helgason and M. Hensel and E. Henske and C. Her and P. K. Herman and A. Hern{\'a}ndez and Carlos Hern{\'a}ndez and S. Hern{\'a}ndez-Tiedra and C. Hetz and P. Hiesinger and K. Higaki and S. Hilfiker and B. Hill and J. Hill and W. Hill and K. Hino and D. Hofius and P. Hofman and G. H{\"o}glinger and J. Höhfeld and M. Holz and Yonggeun Hong and D. Hood and J. Hoozemans and T. Hoppe and C. Hsu and Chin-Yuan Hsu and L. Hsu and Dong Hu and Guochang Hu and H. Hu and Hongbo Hu and M. C. Hu and Y. Hu and Zhuo-wei Hu and Fang Hua and Ya-wei Hua and C. Huang and Huey-Lan Huang and K. Huang and Shile Huang and Shiqian Huang and Wei-Pang Huang and Yiran Huang and Y. Huang and T. Huber and P. Huebbe and W. Huh and J. Hulmi and G. Hur and J. Hurley and Z. Husak and S. Hussain and Salik Hussain and Jung Sil Hwang and S. Hwang and Thomas I S Hwang and A. Ichihara and Y. Imai and C. Imbriano and Megumi Inomata and T. Into and V. Iovane and J. Iovanna and R. Iozzo and N. Ip and J. Irazoqui and P. Iribarren and Y. Isaka and A. Isakovic and H. Ischiropoulos and J. Isenberg and M. Ishaq and H. Ishida and I. Ishii and J. Ishmael and C. Isidoro and K. Isobe and E. Isono and S. Issazadeh-Navikas and K. Itahana and Eisuke Itakura and A. Ivanov and A. Iyer and J. M. Izquierdo and Y. Izumi and V. Izzo and M. J{\"a}{\"a}ttel{\"a} and Nadia Jaber and D. Jackson and W. T. Jackson and T. Jacob and T. Jacques and C. Jagannath and A. Jain and N. Jana and B. Jang and A. Jani and B. Janji and P. Jannig and P. Jansson and Steve Jean and M. Jendrach and J. Jeon and N. Jessen and E. Jeung and Kailiang Jia and L. Jia and H. Jiang and L. Jiang and Teng Jiang and X. Jiang and Xuejun Jiang and Y. Jiang and Yongjun Jiang and A. Jim{\'e}nez and C. Jin and Hongchuan Jin and L. Jin and Meiyan Jin and S. Jin and U. K. Jinwal and E. Jo and T. Johansen and D. Johnson and G. V. Johnson and J. D. Johnson and E. Jonasch and C. Jones and L. Joosten and J. Jord{\'a}n and Anna-Maria Joseph and B. Joseph and A. Joubert and D. Ju and J. Ju and H. Juan and K. Juenemann and G. Juh{\'a}sz and Hye In Jung and J. Jung and Y. Jung and H. Jungbluth and M. Justice and B. Jutten and N. Kaakoush and K. Kaarniranta and A. Kaasik and T. Kabuta and B. Kaeffer and Katarina K{\aa}gedal and A. Kahana and S. Kajimura and O. Kakhlon and Manjula Kalia and D. Kalvakolanu and Y. Kamada and K. Kambas and V. Kaminskyy and H. Kampinga and M. Kandouz and Chanhee Kang and R. Kang and T. Kang and Tomotake Kanki and T. Kanneganti and H. Kanno and A. Kanthasamy and M. Kantorow and M. Kaparakis-Liaskos and O. Kapuy and V. Karantza and Md. Razaul Karim and P. Karmakar and A. Kaser and S. Kaushik and T. Kawula and A. Kaynar and Po-Yuan Ke and Zun-Ji Ke and J. Kehrl and K. Keller and J. Kemper and A. Kenworthy and O. Kepp and Andreas Kern and S. Kesari and D. Kessel and R. Ketteler and {\'I}. C. Kettelhut and B. Khambu and M. Khan and V. K. Khandelwal and S. Khare and J. Kiang and A. Kiger and A. Kihara and A. Kim and C. Kim and Deok Yeong Kim and D. Kim and Eung Kwoen Kim and H. Kim and J. Kim and Jin Gook Kim and J. H. Kim and K. W. Kim and M. D. Kim and Moojoon Kim and P. Kim and Seong Moon Kim and Soo-Youl Kim and Y. Kim and A. Kimchi and A. Kimmelman and T. Kimura and J. King and K. Kirkegaard and V. Kirkin and L. Kirshenbaum and S. Kishi and Y. Kitajima and K. Kitamoto and Y. Kitaoka and K. Kitazato and R. A. Kley and W. Klimecki and M. Klinkenberg and J. Klucken and Helene Kn{\ae}velsrud and E. Knecht and Laura Knuppertz and J. Ko and S. Kobayashi and J. Koch and C. Koechlin-Ramonatxo and U. Koenig and Y. Koh and K. K{\"o}hler and S. Kohlwein and M. Koike and M. Komatsu and E. Kominami and Dexin Kong and H. Kong and Eumorphia G Konstantakou and B. Kopp and T. Korcsm{\'a}ros and L. Korhonen and V. Korolchuk and N. Koshkina and Yanjun Kou and M. Koukourakis and C. Koumenis and A. Kov{\'a}cs and T. Kov{\'a}cs and W. Kovacs and D. Koya and C. Kraft and D. Krainc and Helmut Kramer and T. Kravic-Stevovic and W. Krek and C. Kretz-remy and R. Krick and Malathi Krishnamurthy and J. Kriston-Vizi and G. Kroemer and M. Kruer and R. Kruger and N. Ktistakis and K. Kuchitsu and Christian Kuhn and A. Kumar and D. Kumar and R. Kumar and S. Kumar and M. Kundu and H. Kung and A. Kuno and S. Kuo and J. Kuret and T. Kurz and T. Kwok and T. Kwon and Yong Eok Kwon and Irene Kyrmizi and A. L. La Spada and F. Lafont and T. Lahm and A. Lakkaraju and T. Lam and T. Lamark and S. Lancel and T. Landowski and D. Lane and J. Lane and C. Lanzi and P. Lapaquette and L. R. Lapierre and J. Laporte and J. Laukkarinen and G. Laurie and S. Lavandero and L. Lavie and M. Lavoie and B. Law and H. Law and Kelsey B. Law and R. Layfield and P. Lazo and L. Le Cam and K. L. Le Roch and H. Le Stunff and V. Leardkamolkarn and Marc Lecuit and Byung-Hoon Lee and Che-Hsin Lee and E. F. Lee and G. Lee and He-Jin Lee and Hsinyu Lee and J. Lee and Jongdae Lee and Michael Lee and M. Lee and P. Lee and S. W. Lee and Seungjae Lee and S. Lee and Stella Lee and S. S. 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Yuan and Z. Yuan and B. Yue and J. Yue and Z. Yue and D. Zacks and E. Zacksenhaus and N. Zaffaroni and T. Zaglia and Z. Zakeri and Vincent R Zecchini and J. Zeng and Min Zeng and Q. Zeng and A. Zervos and D. Zhang and F. Zhang and G. Zhang and Guo-Chang Zhang and H. Zhang and Hongbing Zhang and Jian Zhang and Jiangwei Zhang and J. Zhang and L. Zhang and M. Zhang and Xiangnan Zhang and X. Zhang and Y. Zhang and M. Zhao and W. Zhao and X. Zhao and Y. Zhao and Z. Zhao and D. Zheng and Xi-Long Zheng and X. Zheng and B. Zhivotovsky and Q. Zhong and Guang-Zhou Zhou and Guofei Zhou and Huiping Zhou and S. Zhou and X. Zhou and Hongxin Zhu and H. Zhu and Wei-Guo Zhu and W. Zhu and X. Zhu and Yuhua Zhu and Shi-Mei Zhuang and X. Zhuang and E. Ziparo and Christos E. Zois and T. Zoladek and W. Zong and A. Zorzano and S. Zughaier},
  journal={Autophagy},
  year={2016},
  volume={12},
  pages={1 - 222}
}
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there… Expand
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