Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.

  title={Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.},
  author={Daniel J Klionsky and F{\'a}bio Camargo Abdalla and Hagai Abeliovich and Robert T. Abraham and Abraham Acevedo-Arozena and Khosrow Adeli and Lotta Agholme and Maria Agrawal Agnello and Patrizia Agostinis and Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso and Hyung Jun Ahn and Ouardia Ait-Mohamed and Slimane Ait-Si-Ali and Takahiko Akematsu and Shizuo Akira and Hesham M. Al-Younes and Munir A. Al-Zeer and Matthew L Albert and Roger L Albin and Javier Alegre-Abarrategui and Maria Francesca Aleo and Mehrdad Alirezaei and Alexandru Almasan and Maylin Almonte-Becerril and Atsuo Amano and Ravi K Amaravadi and Shoba Amarnath and Amal O. Amer and Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie and Vellareddy Anantharam and David Kong Ann and Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie and Hiroshi Aoki and Nadezda Apostolova and Giuseppe Arancia and John P. Aris and Katsuhiko Asanuma and Nana Yaa Odamea Asare and Hisashi Ashida and Valerie Askanas and David Stephen Askew and Patrick Auberger and Misuzu Baba and Steven K. Backues and Eric H. Baehrecke and Ben A Bahr and Xue-Yuan Bai and Yannick Bailly and Robert A Baiocchi and Giulia Baldini and Walter Balduini and Andrea Ballabio and Bruce A Bamber and Edward T. W. Bampton and G{\'a}bor B{\'a}nhegyi and Clinton R Bartholomew and Diane C Bassham and Robert C. Bast and Henri Batoko and Boon-Huat Bay and Isabelle Beau and Daniel M B{\'e}chet and Thomas J. Begley and Christian Behl and Christian Behrends and Soumeya Bekri and Bryan H. Bellaire and Linda J Bendall and Luca Benetti and Laura Berliocchi and Henri Bernardi and Francesca Bernassola and S{\'e}bastien Besteiro and Ingrid Bhatia-Ki{\vs}{\vs}ov{\'a} and Xiaoning Bi and Martine Biard-Piechaczyk and Janice S Blum and Lawrence H. Boise and Paolo Bonaldo and David L. Boone and Beat C Bornhauser and Karina Ramalho Bortoluci and Ioannis Bossis and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Bost and Jean-Pierre Bourquin and Patricia Boya and Micha{\"e}l Boyer-Guittaut and Peter V Bozhkov and Nathan R. Brady and Claudio Brancolini and Andreas Brech and Jay E. Brenman and A. L. R. Brennand and Emery H. Bresnick and Patrick Brest and Dave Bridges and Molly L Bristol and Paul S Brookes and Eric J. Brown and John H Brumell and Nicola Brunetti-Pierri and Ulf T. Brunk and Dennis E. Bulman and Scott J. Bultman and Geert Bultynck and Lena F Burbulla and Wilfried Bursch and Jonathan P Butchar and W Buzgariu and S{\'e}rgio Paulo Bydlowski and Ken Cadwell and Monika Cahova and DongSheng Cai and Jiyang Cai and Qian Cai and Bruno Calabretta and Javier Calvo-Garrido and Nadine Camougrand and Michelangelo Campanella and Jenny Campos-Salinas and Eleonora Candi and Lizhi Cao and Allan B. Caplan and Simon R. Carding and Sandra M Cardoso and Jennifer Sue Carew and Cathleen R. Carlin and Virginie Carmignac and Let{\'i}cia A. M. Carneiro and Serena Carra and Rosario Alberto Caruso and Giorgio Casari and Caty Casas and Roberta Castino and Eduardo Cebollero and Francesco Cecconi and Jean Celli and Hassan Chaachouay and Han-Jung Chae and Christopher A. Chai and David L. Chan and Edmond Y. W. Chan and Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Chi-Ming Che and Ching Cheng Chen and Guang-Chao Chen and Guanxing Chen and Min Chen and Quan Chen and Steve S. Chen and Wenli Chen and Xi Chen and Xiangmei Chen and Xiequn Chen and Ye-Guang Chen and Yingyu Chen and Yongqiang Chen and Yueqing Chen and Zhixiang Chen and Alan Cheng and Christopher Hon Ki Cheng and Yan Yan Cheng and Heesun Cheong and Jae Ho Cheong and Sheldon Cherry and Russ Chess-Williams and Zelda H.Y. Cheung and Eric Chevet and Hsiang-tsai Chiang and Roberto Chiarelli and Tomoki Chiba and Lih-Shen Chin and Shih-Hwa Chiou and Francis V. Chisari and Chan Young Cho and Dong-Hyung Cho and Augustine M. K. Choi and DooSeok Choi and Kyeong Sook Choi and Mary E. Choi and Salem Chouaib and Divaker Choubey and Vinay Choubey and Charleen T Chu and Tsung-Hsien Chuang and Sheau-Huei Chueh and Taehoon Chun and Yong Joon Chwae and M. -L. Chye and Roberto Ciarcia and Maria Rosa Ciriolo and Michael J Clague and Robert B. Clark and Peter G. H. Clarke and Robert Clarke and Patrice Codogno and Hilary A. Coller and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Colombo and Sergio E. Comincini and Maria Condello and Fabrizio Condorelli and Mark R Cookson and Graham H. Coombs and Isabelle Coppens and Ram{\'o}n L Corbal{\'a}n and Pascale Cossart and Paola Costelli and Safia Costes and Ana Coto-Montes and Eduardo Couve and Fraser P. Coxon and James Michael Cregg and Jos{\'e} L Crespo and Marianne J Cronj{\'e} and Ana Mar{\'i}a Cuervo and Joseph John Cullen and Mark J Czaja and Marcello D'Amelio and Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud and Lester Merlin Davids and Faith Elizabeth Davies and Massimo De Felici and John Frederick de Groot and Cornelis A M de Haan and Luisa De Martino and Angelo de Milito and Vincenzo De Tata and Jayanta Debnath and Alexei Degterev and Benjamin Dehay and Lea M Delbridge and Francesca Demarchi and Yi Zhen Deng and J{\"o}rn Dengjel and Pamela Dent and Donna Denton and Vojo Deretic and Shyamal D. Desai and Rodney J Devenish and Mario Di Gioacchino and Gilbert Di Paolo and Chiara Di Pietro and Guillermo D{\'i}az-Araya and In{\'e}s D{\'i}az-Laviada and M T Diaz-Meco and Javier D{\'i}az-Nido and Ivan Dikic and Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar and Wenjing Ding and Clark W. Distelhorst and Abhinav Diwan and Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny and Svetlana Dokudovskaya and Zheng Fang Dong and Frank Charles Dorsey and Victor E. Dosenko and James J Dowling and Stephen Doxsey and Marl{\`e}ne Dreux and Mark E. Drew and Qiangling Duan and Michel Andr{\'e} Duchosal and Karen Duff and Isabelle Dugail and Madeleine Durbeej and Michael Duszenko and Charles Louis Edelstein and Aimee L Edinger and Gustavo Egea and Ludwig Eichinger and N Tony Eissa and Suhendan Ekmekcioglu and Wafik S El-Deiry and Zvulun Elazar and Mohamed A Elgendy and Lisa M. Ellerby and Kai Er Eng and Anna-Mart Engelbrecht and Simone Engelender and Jekaterina Erenpreisa and Ricardo Escalante and Audrey Esclatine and Eric Eskelinen and Lucile Espert and Virginia Espina and Huizhou Fan and Jia Jing Fan and Qiwen Fan and Zhen Nan Fan and Shengyun Fang and Yongqi Fang and Manolis Fanto and Alessandro Fanzani and Thomas Farkas and Jean-Claude Farr{\'e} and Mathias Faure and Marcus Fechheimer and Carl G Feng and Jian Feng and Qili Feng and You-ji Feng and L{\'a}szl{\'o} F{\'e}s{\"u}s and Ralph Feuer and Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira and Gian Maria Fimia and Diane C Fingar and Steven Finkbeiner and Toren Finkel and Kim D. Finley and Filomena Fiorito and Edward A Fisher and Paul B Fisher and Marc Flajolet and Maria L Florez-McClure and Salvatore Florio and Edward A. Fon and Francesco Fornai and Franco Fortunato and Rati Vig. Fotedar and Daniel H. Fowler and Howard S. Fox and R Franco and Lisa B Frankel and Martijn Fransen and Jos{\'e} Moyano Fuentes and Jes{\'u}s Fern{\'a}ndez Fueyo and Jun Fujii and Kozo Fujisaki and Eriko Fujita and Mitsunori Fukuda and Ruth Furukawa and Matthias Gaestel and Philippe Gailly and Malgorzata J. Gajewska and Brigitte Galliot and Vincent Galy and S Ganesh and Barry Ganetzky and Ian G Ganley and Fen-Biao Gao and George Fu Gao and Jinming Gao and Lorena Garcia and Guillermo Garcia-Manero and Mikel Garcia-Marcos and Marjan Garmyn and Andrei L. Gartel and Evelina Gatti and Mathias Gautel and Thomas R Gawriluk and Matthew Gegg and Jiefei Geng and Marc Germain and Jason E. Gestwicki and David Gewirtz and Saeid Ghavami and Pradipta Ghosh and Anna Maria Giammarioli and Alexandra N Giatromanolaki and Spencer B Gibson and Robert W. Gilkerson and Michael L. Ginger and Henry N. Ginsberg and Jakub Golab and Michael S. Goligorsky and Pierre Golstein and Candelaria G{\'o}mez-Manzano and Ebru Goncu and C{\'e}line Gongora and Claudio Daniel Gonz{\'a}lez and Ramon Gonzalez and Cristina Gonz{\'a}lez-Est{\'e}vez and Rosa Ana Gonz{\'a}lez-Polo and Elena G{\'o}nzalez-Rey and Nikolai V Gorbunov and Sharon M Gorski and Sandro Goruppi and Roberta A Gottlieb and Devrim Gozuacik and Giovanna Elvira Granato and Gary D. Grant and Kim N Green and Ale{\vs} Gregorc and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Gros and Charles Grose and Thomas W. Grunt and Philippe Gual and Jun-Lin Guan and Kun Liang Guan and Sylvie M. Guichard and Anna S. Gukovskaya and I. Ya. Gukovsky and Jan Gunst and {\AA} B Gustafsson and Andrew J Halayko and Amber N. Hale and Sandra Karen Halonen and Maho Hamasaki and Feng Han and Ting Por Han and Michael K. Hancock and Malene Hansen and Hisato Harada and Masaru Harada and Stefan E Hardt and J Wade Harper and Adrian L. Harris and James C O Harris and S. D. Harris and Makoto Hashimoto and Jeffrey Adam Haspel and S Hayashi and Lori A Hazelhurst and Congcong He and Yuliang L. He and Margaret Hebert and Kim A. Heidenreich and Miep H. Helfrich and G Vignir Helgason and Elizabeth P Henske and Bryan Herman and Paul Herman and Claudio Hetz and Sabine Hilfiker and Joseph A Hill and Lynne J. Hocking and Paul Hofman and Thomas G. Hofmann and J{\"o}rg H{\"o}hfeld and Tessa L Holyoake and Minghuang Hong and David A. Hood and G{\"o}khan S Hotamisligil and Ewout Johan Houwerzijl and Maria H{\o}yer-Hansen and Bingren Hu and Chien-an Andy Hu and Hanxian Hu and Yunfang Hua and Canhua Huang and Ju Wen Huang and Shengbing Huang and Wei-Pang Huang and Tobias B Huber and Won-Ki Huh and Tien Hoang Hung and Ted R. Hupp and Gang Min Hur and James B Hurley and Sabah N. A. Hussain and Patrick J. Hussey and Jung Jin Hwang and Seungmin Hwang and Atsuhiro Ichihara and Shirin Ilkhanizadeh and Ken Inoki and Takeshi Into and Valentina Iovane and Juan Iovanna and Nancy Y Ip and Yoshitaka Isaka and Hiroyuki Ishida and Ciro Isidoro and Ken-ichi Isobe and Akiko Iwasaki and Marta Izquierdo and Yotaro Izumi and Panu M Jaakkola and Marja J{\"a}{\"a}ttel{\"a} and George R. Jackson and William T Jackson and Bassam Janji and Marina Jendrach and Ju-Hong Jeon and Eui-Bae Jeung and Hong Yan Jiang and HongChi Jiang and Jean X Jiang and Ming Jiang and Qing Hai Jiang and Xuejun Jiang and Alberto Jimenez and Meiyan Jin and Shengkan V Jin and Cheol O. Joe and Terje Johansen and Daniel Ezra Johnson and Gail V W Johnson and Nicola Louise Jones and Bertrand Joseph and Suresh K. Joseph and Annie Margaretha Joubert and G{\'a}bor Juh{\'a}sz and Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret and Chang Hwa Jung and Yong-Keun Jung and Kai Kaarniranta and Allen Kaasik and Tomohiro Kabuta and Motoni Kadowaki},
  volume={8 4},
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there… CONTINUE READING


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