Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries present a large clinical challenge with a significant need for new interventions. While there have been numerous reviews on muscle injury models, few have critically evaluated VML models. The objective of this review is to discuss current preclinical models of VML in terms of models, analytical outcomes, and therapeutic interventions, and to provide guidelines for the future use of preclinical VML models. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the USA. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.