Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search.

  title={Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search.},
  author={Jeremy M. Wolfe and Kyle R. Cave and S L Franzel},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance},
  volume={15 3},
Subjects searched sets of items for targets defined by conjunctions of color and form, color and orientation, or color and size. Set size was varied and reaction times (RT) were measured. For many unpracticed subjects, the slopes of the resulting RT X Set Size functions are too shallow to be consistent with Treisman's feature integration model, which proposes serial, self-terminating search for conjunctions. Searches for triple conjunctions (Color X Size X Form) are easier than searches for… 
Part-whole information is useful in visual search for size X size but not orientation X orientation conjunctions
  • B.
  • Psychology
  • 2010
In visual search tasks, subjects look for a target among a variable number of distractor items, If the target is defined by a conjunction of two different features (e.g., color X orientation),
Conjunction search revisited
Search for conjunctions of highly discriminable features can be rapid or even parallel. This article explores three possible accounts based on (a) perceptual segregation, (b) conjunction detectors,
Guided search for triple conjunctions
A key tenet of feature integration theory and of related theories such as guided search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of
Conjunctions Can Guide Attention Through Visual Search
Guided search is a mechanism that controls and optimizes the deployment of attention during visual search and allows one to pay attention only to highly relevant items. For instance, when searching
Guided Search 4.0: Current Progress With a Model of Visual Search
  • J. Wolfe
  • Psychology
    Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems
  • 2007
GS evolved out of the two-stage architecture of models like Treisman's feature integration theory (FIT), which proposed a parallel, preattentive first stage and a serial second stage controlled by visual selective attention.
Detecting conjunctions of color and form in parallel
In the three experiments reported here, a redundant-target detection task was used with conjunctively defined targets and display sizes of two, one or two, and six, and strong evidence for parallel processing was observed.
Part—whole information is useful in visual search for size × size but not orientation × orientation conjunctions
“Part— whole” size × size conjunction searches are efficient; “part-part” searches are not; this difference between preattentive processing of color and size, and orientation, on the other, may reflect structural relationships between features in real-world objects.
Features in visual search combine linearly.
It is concluded that features in visual search co-activate linearly and it is demonstrated for the first time that aspect ratio is a novel feature that guides visual search.
Attention in visual search: Multiple search classes
The question addressed here was whether a parallel-serial dichotomy would be obtained if data were collected using a variety of targets representing each of several kinds of defining features.
Visual search at different spatial scales.
  • J. Saarinen
  • Psychology
    Scandinavian journal of psychology
  • 1995
In the experiments reported here, the processing of feature conjunctions was studied when the stimulus features of a combination were at different spatial scales, and it is possible that the conjunction search could not be performed in parallel because switches between the two scales are linked to attention and the task required the use of both scales in order to find the target.


Visual search for targets defined by combinations of color, shape, and size: An examination of the task constraints on feature and conjunction searches
Evidence for attentional involvement was found when subjects searched for two simultaneously present features, going against the claim that differences between the two types of search occur because feature searches can be carried out preattentively, while only conjunction searches involve the serial application of focused attention.
Serial and parallel processing of visual feature conjunctions
It seems that the visual system is incapable of conducting a parallel search over two stimulus dimensions simultaneously, but this conclusion is extended for the conjunction of motion and colour, showing that it requires a serial search.
Searching for conjunctively defined targets.
In an experiment in which the numbers of the two distractors were unconfounded, evidence is found that subjects can search through specified subsets of stimuli, and implications of selective search are discussed.
Visual search for a conjunction of movement and form is parallel
Attention can be restricted to a spatially dispersed perceptual group, defined by common movement, which contradicts previous conclusions from visual search experiments that attention can only be assigned to contiguous regions of visual space.
Automatic Processing and the Unitization of Two Features.
With appropriate training and sufficient practice, subjects could unitize the features in conjunction condition and, with training, conjunction performance was about equal to or better than initial single feature conditions.
Feature analysis in early vision: evidence from search asymmetries.
The results of a series of search experiments are interpreted as evidence that focused attention to single items or to groups is required to reduce background activity when the Weber fraction distinguishing the pooled feature activity with displayscontaining a target and with displays containing only distractors is too small to allow reliable discrimination.
Detecting conjunctions of color and form: Reassessing the serial search hypothesis
  • H. Pashler
  • Psychology
    Perception & psychophysics
  • 1987
It appears that the nature of the attentional limits arising in the process of feature conjunction must be very different from that suggested by Treisman and Gelade, and an alternative model of conjunction search is proposed on the basis of these data.
Serial and Parallel Search in Pattern Vision?
A reinter-pretation of studies that use the Treisman visual search paradigm, in terms of perceptual segregation of the visual field by disparity, motion, color, and pattern features such as colinearity, orientation, lateral separation, or size, is suggested.
Visual search with color.
  • R. Carter
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1982
Three experiments were conducted to discover how rapidly people can find a particular target when they know the color of the target, and three factors had profound effects on search speed.