Guidance on the diagnosis and clinical management of acne

  title={Guidance on the diagnosis and clinical management of acne},
  author={Clive B. Archer and Stanley N. Cohen and Samantha Baron},
  journal={Clinical and Experimental Dermatology},
This article discusses the effects of acne (sometimes referred to as acne vulgaris), how to diagnose it confidently and how to distinguish it from rosacea, and the options available for treatment, especially in primary care. We also suggest when referral to dermatology should be considered, and try to anticipate some frequently asked questions. 

The management of acne in primary care

  • M. Ridd
  • Medicine
    The British journal of dermatology
  • 2017
Conference rates for acne in primary care are stable, being highest among 12–18-year-olds but lower overall than previously estimated, and prescribing does not follow expected patterns, with lymecycline and clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide combination products becoming the most common oral and topical agents and the majority of other oral antibiotics decreasing in use.

Assessing acne vulgaris: risk factors, clinical features and examinations

An assessment tool for acne documentation is provided, covering patient history, physical examination and previous/present treatments, and key elements of the author's assessment tool will be discussed in detail throughout the article to aid a better understanding of the clinical features assessed.

Treatment of Acne Vulgaris During Pregnancy and Lactation

The use of topical medications as first-line treatment for acne vulgaris in pregnant and lactating women and both oral and topical retinoids should be avoided.

Perioral lesions and dermatoses.

Synchronizing Pharmacotherapy in Acne with Review of Clinical Care

The experts opined that among topical therapies, the combination therapies are preferred over monotherapy due to associated lower efficacy, poor tolerability, safety issues, adverse effects, and emerging bacterial resistance.

Acne vulgaris

A streamlined outline of treatment intended for the non-specialist is provided for acne, which has clear detrimental psychosocial effects and may lead to permanent scarring.

Efficacy of a combined chemical peel and topical salicylic acid‐based gel combination in the treatment of active acne

  • L. Calvisi
  • Medicine
    Journal of cosmetic dermatology
  • 2021
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin characterized by the presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts, which might result in

Tazarotene foam, 0.1%, for the treatment of acne

The foam vehicles may increase compliance and satisfaction in some patients and as retinoids are commonly first line acne treatments, this new topical retinoid foam may be a useful option for some acne patients.

Systematic review on the rapidity of the onset of action of topical treatments in the therapy of mild‐to‐moderate acne vulgaris

Further research is needed to identify treatments that offer an early onset of action and possibly help to optimize patients' adherence and to consider TOA should be considered as an additional outcome in acne trials.



Inflammation in acne vulgaris.

  • G. Webster
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 1995

Acne prevalence, knowledge about acne and psychological morbidity in mid‐adolescence: a community‐based study

This study highlights the need to understand more fully the role that social media and social media use in the development of acne and its impact on mental health in adolescents.

Post‐adolescent acne: a review of clinical features

Most patients had persistent acne; but true late‐onset acne (onset after the age of 25 years) was seen in 28 (18.4%) of women and four (8.3%) of men, and a family history revealed that 100 (50%) of patients had a first‐degree relative with post‐adolescent acne.


SUMMARY.— We examined 1555 school children aged 8 to 18 and graded them according to the presence and severity of acne lesions on the face and neck. Comedones were present in a large proportion of

Acne vulgaris and the quality of life of adult dermatology patients.

Older adults reported more effects of acne on their quality of life than younger adults, even after controlling for sex and acne severity as judged by the dermatologist.

Safety of long‐term high‐dose minocycline in the treatment of acne

It is concluded that minocycline, at doses of up to 200 mg/day, is safe, long‐term, for acne, when such doses are clinically necessary.

Prevalence of facial acne vulgaris in late adolescence and in adults.

A survey of 1066 healthy women and 1089 healthy men aged 18-70 years, performed to determine the prevalence of facial acne, showed that clinical acne was not confined to adolescents and may be related to antibiotic treatment or, in women, to the use of oral contraceptives or cosmetics.

Prevalence of facial acne in adults.

Genetic control of sebum excretion and acne—a twin study

  • C. Moss
  • Medicine
    The British journal of dermatology
  • 1989
I am puzzled by the data of Drs Walton, Wyatt and Cunliffe regarding acne in twins, and doubt the validity of their conclusions, but the probable answer is that acne severity is genetically controlled and will show greater concordance in monothan di-zygotic twins.