Guaraní-Spanish Jopara Mixing in a Paraguayan Novel: Does it Reflect a Third Language, a Language Variety, or True Codeswitching?

  title={Guaran{\'i}-Spanish Jopara Mixing in a Paraguayan Novel: Does it Reflect a Third Language, a Language Variety, or True Codeswitching?},
  author={Bruno Estigarribia},
  journal={Journal of Language Contact},
We study the highly idiosyncratic case of Paraguay, the only American nation where an indigenous language has survived as a majority language spoken by the non-indigenous population. Jopara is the name of the commonly used code that mixes Guarani and Spanish. Characterizations of Jopara in the literature are inconclusive. Some authors call it a variety of Spanish, some a variety of Guarani, others a new mixed language. The choice of one characterization over the other has important implications… 

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