Guaraní-Spanish Jopara Mixing in a Paraguayan Novel: Does it Reflect a Third Language, a Language Variety, or True Codeswitching?

@article{Estigarribia2015GuaranSpanishJM,
  title={Guaran{\'i}-Spanish Jopara Mixing in a Paraguayan Novel: Does it Reflect a Third Language, a Language Variety, or True Codeswitching?},
  author={Bruno Estigarribia},
  journal={Journal of Language Contact},
  year={2015},
  volume={8},
  pages={183-222}
}
We study the highly idiosyncratic case of Paraguay, the only American nation where an indigenous language has survived as a majority language spoken by the non-indigenous population. Jopara is the name of the commonly used code that mixes Guarani and Spanish. Characterizations of Jopara in the literature are inconclusive. Some authors call it a variety of Spanish, some a variety of Guarani, others a new mixed language. The choice of one characterization over the other has important implications… 

Intonational and Syntactic Innovations in a Language Contact Situation: An Explorative Study of Yes/No Questions in Paraguayan Guarani-Spanish Bilinguals.

Whereas the intonation of Spanish varieties has received considerable attention in the past few decades, the research has so far not included the variety of Spanish spoken in Paraguay, where

Guarani Morphology in Paraguayan Spanish: Insights from Code-Mixing Typology

Abstract:In this paper we examine the use of Guarani affixes and clitics in colloquial Paraguayan Spanish. We depart from the traditional view of these as “borrowings,” and instead explore the idea

Interactions of Nasal Harmony and Word-Internal Language Mixing in Paraguayan Guaraní

Words containing morphemes from multiple languages offer a unique look into the grammatical systems that constrain word formation. In this paper, I introduce novel data from nasal harmony patterns in

A Speech Planning Account of Guarani Grammatical Borrowings in Paraguayan Spanish

Previous studies view the use of Guarani grammatical morphemes in Paraguayan Spanish simply as grammatical borrowings (if one focuses on the morphosyntactic status of mixed forms) or as an

Analyzing the structure of code-switched written texts

This work focuses on Guarani-Spanish LM/CS (Jopara) as represented in the Paraguayan novel Ramona Quebranto (RQ), and applies the framework of Muysken, developed as a taxonomy of spoken LM/ CS.

Jojajovai: A Parallel Guarani-Spanish Corpus for MT Benchmarking

This work presents a parallel corpus of Guarani-Spanish text aligned at sentence level, and is structured as a collection of subsets from different sources, further split into training, development and test sets.

Heritage Languages: A Language Contact Approach

Heritage languages, such as the Turkish varieties spoken in Berlin or the Spanish used in Los Angeles, are non-dominant languages, often with little prestige. Their speakers also speak the dominant

On the logistical difficulties and findings of Jopara Sentiment Analysis

The problem of sentiment analysis for Jopara, a code-switching language between Guarani and Spanish, is addressed and a set of neural models are trained, including pre-trained language models, and whether they perform better than traditional machine learning ones in this low-resource setup is explored.

An Arabic-Moroccan Darija Code-Switched Corpus

The effort in the development and annotation of a large scale corpus containing code-switched data and its implications for research into the processing of Moroccan Darija are described.

Heritage Languages

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 74 REFERENCES

Lexical evidence for a redefinition of Paraguayan “Jopara”

Abstract Paraguay is characterized by a specific kind of bilingualism. More than 90% of the population does not use, in colloquial situations, only one of the official languages of the country,

The linguistic situation in urban Paraguay: A tendency toward Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism?

This study examines the current linguistic reality of the urban sector of Paraguay, specifically that of the capital city, Asuncion. The main goal is to analyze the linguistic changes that have

Temporal reference in Paraguayan Guaraní, a tenseless language

This paper contributes data from Paraguayan Guaraní (Tupí-Guaraní) to the discussion of how temporal reference is determined in tenseless languages, and explores the possibility of accounting for the temporal reference of clauses with a phonologically empty non-future tense morpheme.

Language Planning and Policy in Paraguay

Paraguay is unique among the countries of the Americas in that nearly 90% of the largely non-indigenous population speaks an indigenous language, Guaraní. The majority of the country is also

Mix-Im-Up Speech and Emergent Mixed Languages in Indigenous Australia

As we attempt to monitor and assess the states of health of languages in Australia, however, certain aspects of the problem tend to elude us because of the conceptual systems and tools we use. First,

Gurindji Kriol: A Mixed Language Emerges from Code-switching

The language spoken most frequently by Gurindji people between the ages of 3 and about 45, termed ‘Gurindji Kriol’ here, is a counter-example to Bakker (2003: 129), which claims that ‘mixed languages’ do not arise from code-switching.

Word Order In Paraguayan Guaraní1

This paper explores constraints on clausal word order in Paraguayan Guaraní on the basis of a corpus of naturally occurring data. We find that grammatical function is a strong predictor of word order

Which Mix — code-switching or a mixed language? — Gurindji Kriol

Gurindji Kriol is a contact variety spoken in northern Australia which has been identified as a mixed language. Yet its status as an autonomous language system must be questioned for three reasons —

Spanish/English Codeswitching in a Written Corpus

Spanish/English codeswitching in published work represents a claim to the right to participate in the marketplace on a bilingual and not just monolingual basis. This book offers a syntactic and

[-Person] direct object drop : The genetic cause of a syntactic feature in Paraguayan Spanish

Omission of impersonal direct object has been observed in Spanish spoken in Paraguay. This linguistic phenomenon has been previously analyzed as a result of direct transfer from a similar syntactic
...