Functional loss after spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused, in part, by demyelination of axons surviving the trauma. Administration of guanosine (8 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days, starting 5 weeks after moderate SCI in rats, improved locomotor function and spinal cord remyelination. Myelinogenesis was associated with an increase in the number of mature oligodendrocytes detected in guanosine-treated spinal cord sections in comparison with controls. These data indicate that guanosine-induced remyelination resulted, at least in part, from activation of endogenous oligodendrocyte lineage cells. These findings may have significant implications for chronic demyelinating diseases.