Caffeine and the control of cerebral hemodynamics.
Purinergic receptors play an important role in the regulation of free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in astrocytes. In the present study, 10 microM adenosine caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in 85% of the cultures studied, i.e., primary cultures of mouse astrocytes, differentiated by culturing in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Antagonist sensitivity and rapid desensitization suggested that it did so by acting on A3 receptors. Another biologically important purine, guanosine, also caused an increase in astrocytic [Ca(2+)](i) (at concentrations of 0.1-100 microM). Although this response did not show the same rapid desensitization as the response to adenosine, it may also have been exerted on an A3 receptor. It supports this idea that inosine also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), because inosine is known to activate A3 receptors in mast cells and structurally is even more closely related to guanosine than is adenosine.