Growth rate, body composition, cell number, cell size, and the activity of four dehydrogenase enzymes were studied from 10 to 25 days of age in one control (1C) and three lines (3, 9, 10) of Tribolium castaneum that had been subjected to long term selection for large 21-day pupae weight.-Selected lines were two- to three-fold larger in size than the control line throughout development. No major differences in percent of protein were detected among the lines but at any particular age, the selected lines were found to have a higher fat content than the control line. The differences in fat content were closely correlated with development such that all the lines reached very similar levels of percent of fat just prior to pupation. Water content showed an inverse relation to percent of fat.-Selection was observed to have caused major changes in the cellular response to growth. The selected lines had an average of from 17% to 48% larger cells (measured as protein/DNA) and were found to have from 37 to 62% more cells (measured as total DNA) than the control line at all ages from 10 to 19 days of age. In addition, the selected lines had a higher RNA content at all ages studied and higher RNA:DNA ratios at the young ages. In contrast the enzyme activities of ICDH and LDH were 60% lower. The results are interpreted as indicating that a more efficient metabolic machinery had evolved in the rapidly growing selected lines.