Growth, nutrient utilization, and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein1

@article{Blome2003GrowthNU,
  title={Growth, nutrient utilization, and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein1},
  author={R.M. Blome and James K Drackley and Floyd K. Mckeith and Michael F. Hutjens and G C Mccoy},
  journal={Journal of Animal Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={81},
  pages={1641 - 1655}
}
Abstract Male Holstein calves <1 wk of age were allowed a 2-wk adaptation period after purchase, and then were blocked by BW and assigned randomly within block to either a baseline slaughter group or one of four experimental groups (n = 8 to 9 per group). Treatments were isocaloric milk replacers (12.5% solids) fed at 12% of BW that contained 16.1, 18.5, 22.9, or 25.8% CP (DM basis) from whey protein sources. After a 6-wk feeding period, all calves were slaughtered and the weights and chemical… 

Growth and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein at two feeding rates.

TLDR
Interactions (P < 0.05) of feeding rate and CP concentration for gains of water and protein indicated that when dietary CP was 26% the ME supply limited protein use by calves fed at 1.25% of BW daily.

Effects of fat concentration of a high-protein milk replacer on calf performance.

TLDR
Preweaning apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, fat, nonfiber carbohydrates, Ca, and P and serum amylase concentration were linearly reduced as fat increased from 14 to 23%, and preweaning starter intake responded quadratically to fat, being lowest at 14 and 23% fat.

Nitrogen utilization, preweaning nutrient digestibility, and growth effects of Holstein dairy calves fed 2 amounts of a moderately high protein or conventional milk replacer

TLDR
Feeding >0.66kg (DM) from a 26% CP MR increased ADG and improved feed efficiency during the preweaning period but reduced starter intake and lowered N efficiency, which could be due to MOD- and AGG-fed calves having greater urine volume and thereby, greater combined urine N output.

Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

TLDR
Evaluating the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters in newborn Holstein calves found that Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system.

Effects of Additional Milk Replacer Feeding on Calf Health, Growth, and Selected Blood Metabolites in Calves

TLDR
Calves fed variable amount of milk replacer and exposed to immunological challenge before weaning had greater BW gain, but also increased incidence of diarrhea that required added veterinary treatments, which might be related to the calf's ability to identify pathogens in the environment.

Optimal concentrations of lysine, methionine, and threonine in milk replacers for calves less than five weeks of age.

TLDR
The effect of supplementing milk replacers containing 24 to 28% crude protein and 17% fat with Lys, Met, and Thr to estimate the optimum requirements for calves less than 5 wk of age appeared optimum based on responses of body weight gain, feed efficiency, and serum concentrations of urea nitrogen.

Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Amino Acid Digestibility of Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers Containing Different Amounts of Protein in the Preruminant Period

TLDR
It was concluded that calves fed with milk replacer containing 22% of protein had better growth performance and nutrient utilization as compared to animals treated with milk Replacer containing either 18% or 26% ofprotein.

Effects of dietary crude protein on protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

TLDR
The results provide a basis for estimating protein requirement of veal calves according to a factorial approach because the composition of body weight gain was affected differently for each stage, because the protein content of body Weight gain increased with increasing dietary CP content during the first stage, whereas it remained constant during the other 2 stages.

Effects of colostrum and milk replacer feeding rates on intake, growth, and digestibility in calves.

TLDR
Over the first 2 mo of life, the calves feeding MRH consumed less calf starter than calves fed MRM, but average daily gain or hip width change did not differ, and the number of days calves were treated with veterinary medications was higher when calves were fed CR.

Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

TLDR
Weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of age increased with milk supply, however, greater levels of milk are also associated with reduced starter feed intake, in addition to increased body fat content.
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