Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities

@article{Bettencourt2007GrowthIS,
  title={Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities},
  author={Lu{\'i}s M. A. Bettencourt and Jos{\'e} Lobo and Dirk Helbing and Christian K{\"u}hnert and Geoffrey B. West},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={104},
  pages={7301 - 7306}
}
Humanity has just crossed a major landmark in its history with the majority of people now living in cities. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also its main source of crime, pollution, and disease. The inexorable trend toward urbanization worldwide presents an urgent challenge for developing a predictive, quantitative theory of urban organization and sustainable development. Here we present empirical evidence indicating… 

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