A new method of chaining carbon nanofibers in epoxy.
The ground state of an electrorheological (ER) fluid has been studied based on our recently proposed dipole-induced dipole (DID) model. We obtained an analytical expression of the interaction between chains of particles which are of the same or different dielectric constants. The effects of dielectric constants on the structure formation in monodisperse and polydisperse electrorheological fluids are studied in a wide range of dielectric contrasts between the particles and the base fluid. Our results showed that the established body-centered tetragonal ground state in monodisperse ER fluids may become unstable due to a polydispersity in the particle dielectric constants. While our results agree with that of the fully multipole theory, the DID model is much simpler, which offers a basis for computer simulations in polydisperse ER fluids.