Gross and microscopic pathological changes associated with nonthoracotomy implantable defibrillator leads.

@article{Epstein1998GrossAM,
  title={Gross and microscopic pathological changes associated with nonthoracotomy implantable defibrillator leads.},
  author={Andrew E. Epstein and George Neal Kay and Vance J. Plumb and Sharon M. Dailey and Peter G. Anderson},
  journal={Circulation},
  year={1998},
  volume={98 15},
  pages={1517-24}
}
BACKGROUND Although the effects of epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads on underlying cardiac tissue have been reported, the gross and microscopic changes associated with endocardial ICD leads are less well described. This study describes the gross and microscopic changes associated with endocardial ICD leads in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS The hearts from 8 patients were examined. At the time of ICD implantation, the patients' mean age was 47+/-11 years, and the left… CONTINUE READING