Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation

@article{Fumagalli2015GreenlandicIS,
  title={Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation},
  author={Matteo Fumagalli and Ida Moltke and Niels Grarup and Fernando Racimo and Peter Bjerregaard and Marit Eika J{\o}rgensen and Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen and Pascale Gerbault and Line Skotte and Allan Linneberg and Cramer Kjeldahl Christensen and Ivan Brandslund and Torben J{\o}rgensen and Emilia Huerta-S{\'a}nchez and Erik Berg Schmidt and Oluf Pedersen and Torben Hansen and Anders Albrechtsen and Rasmus Nielsen},
  journal={Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={349},
  pages={1343 - 1347}
}
Greenlanders' genomes signal a fatty diet The evolutionary consequences of inhabiting a challenging environment can be seen within the genomes of Greenland Inuit. Fumagalli et al. have found signs of selection for genetic variants in fat metabolism, not just for promoting heat-producing brown fat cells but also for coping with the large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in their seafood diet (see the Perspective by Tishkoff). Genes under selection in these populations have a strong… 

Genomic Evidence of Local Adaptation to Climate and Diet in Indigenous Siberians.

TLDR
The hypothesis that indigenous Siberians have genetically adapted to their local environment by selection on multiple genes that exhibit genomic and spatial patterns consistent with selection for cold climate and/or diet is supported.

Genetics of metabolic traits in Greenlanders: lessons from an isolated population

TLDR
The extraordinary population of Greenland is described, which differs from large outbred populations of Europe and Asia, both in terms of population history and living conditions and the discovery of several loci associated with metabolic phenotypes.

Metabolic Anthropology: Selection Pressure Shapes Fatty Acid Metabolism in Greenlandic Inuit Populations.

  • R. McGarrah
  • Biology
    Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics
  • 2017
TLDR
By shaping the genomes of ancient populations, selection pressure allowed individuals to adapt to local environments and stressors and explain the phenotypic and physiological variation across geographically diverse populations that exist today.

Dietary adaptation of FADS genes in Europe varied across time and geography

TLDR
Genome-wide association studies revealed associations of recently-adaptive alleles with not only LCPUFAs, but also other lipids and decreased risk of several inflammation-related diseases.

Genetic signature of natural selection in first Americans

TLDR
Signs of natural selection at the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes are found not only in an Arctic population, as was previously found, but throughout the Americas, suggesting a single and strong adaptive event that occurred in Beringia, before the range expansion of the first Americans within the American continent and Greenland.

Adaptation of the FADS gene family in Europe: Variation across time, geography and subsistence

TLDR
It is shown that adaptive alleles in recent farmers are associated with expression of FADS genes, enhanced LCPUFAs biosynthesis and reduced risk of inflammatory bowel diseases, probably due to varying diet and subsistence.

Exome Sequencing Provides Evidence of Polygenic Adaptation to a Fat-Rich Animal Diet in Indigenous Siberian Populations

TLDR
The demographic inference shows that the Nganasans and Yakuts diverged ∼12,000-13,000 years ago from East-Asian ancestors in a process involving continuous gene flow.

CPT1A Missense Mutation Associated With Fatty Acid Metabolism and Reduced Height in Greenlanders

TLDR
This study shows that a common CPT1A missense mutation is strongly associated with a range of metabolic phenotypes and reduced height in Greenlanders, and highlights the usefulness of complex trait genetic studies in isolated populations.

Genomic signatures of selection along a climatic gradient in the northern range margin of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

TLDR
Significant clinal patterns in genes enriched for functions associated with glycogen homeostasis, synaptic function, intracellular Ca2+ balance, H3 histone modification, as well as the G2/M transition of cell division are found.

Limited Evidence for Selection at the FADS Locus in Native American Populations

TLDR
It is shown that signals of selection are confounded by the presence of parallel adaptation–postdating their split from Native Americans–in the European and East Asian populations used in the population branch statistic (PBS) test.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 93 REFERENCES

Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Humans

TLDR
The human genome is scanned for selection signals by identifying the SNPs with the strongest correlations between allele frequencies and climate across 61 worldwide populations, finding a striking enrichment of genic and nonsynonymous SNPs relative to non-genic SNPs among those that are strongly correlated with these climate variables.

Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe

TLDR
The first genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA is reported, capitalizing on the largest genome- wide dataset yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians dating to between 6500 and 1000 BCE, including 163 with newly reported data.

Sequencing of 50 Human Exomes Reveals Adaptation to High Altitude

TLDR
A population genomic survey has revealed a functionally important locus in genetic adaptation to high altitude, and the strongest signal of natural selection came from endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 1 (EPAS1), a transcription factor involved in response to hypoxia.

A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

TLDR
The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of conducting genetic association studies outside the traditional setting of large homogeneous populations.

The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland.

TLDR
The rarity of ischemic heart disease in Greenland Eskimos may partly be explained by the antithrombotic effect of the long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid prevalent in diets rich in marine oils.
...