Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) recolonization failure: a Minnesota case study

  title={Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) recolonization failure: a Minnesota case study},
  author={L. David Mech and Forest Isbell and Jim Krueger and John Hart},
  journal={The Canadian Field-Naturalist},
During the past few decades, Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized many areas in the United States and Europe. In many other cases, however, although dispersing wolves reached areas with adequate prey, a population failed to recolonize. Herein, we provide a case study detailing how a wolf pack attempted for three years to recolonize an area 55 km from a long-established population and within 25 km of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, but failed. The pack produced three litters of pups… 
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