# Gravity and global symmetries.

@article{Kallosh1995GravityAG, title={Gravity and global symmetries.}, author={Kallosh and Linde and Susskind}, journal={Physical review. D, Particles and fields}, year={1995}, volume={52 2}, pages={ 912-935 } }

There exists a widely held notion that gravitational effects can strongly violate global symmetries. If this is correct, it may lead to many important consequences. We argue, in particular, that nonperturbative gravitational effects in the axion theory lead to a strong violation of {ital CP} invariance unless they are suppressed by an extremely small factor {ital g}{approx_lt}10{sup {minus}82}. One could hope that this problem disappears if one represents the global symmetry of a pseudoscalar…

## 366 Citations

Approximate symmetries and gravity

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2020

There are strong reasons to believe that global symmetries of quantum theories cannot be exact in the presence of gravity. While this has been argued at the qualitative level, establishing a…

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- 1999

It is known that quantum gravitational effects due to virtual black holes and wormholes can exert an important influence by violating global symmetries. These processes have recently been…

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- MathematicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2021

Abstract
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- Physics
- 2020

Continuous global symmetries are expected to be broken by gravity, which can lead to important phenomenological consequences. A prime example is the threat that this poses to the viability of the…

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- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2019

A bstractIn theories with discrete Abelian gauge groups, requiring that black holes be able to lose their charge as they evaporate leads to an upper bound on the product of a charged particle’s mass…

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- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2019

Abstract
We investigate the role of gauge and gravitational instantons in the context of the Swampland program. Our focus is on the global symmetry breaking they induce, especially in the presence…

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- Physics
- 2018

A bstractIn this note, we discuss the consistency conditions which a discrete ZN symmetry should satisfy in order that it is not violated by gauge and gravitational instantons. As examples, we enlist…

Dark matter and naturalness

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2019

Abstract
The Standard Model of particle physics is governed by Poincaré symmetry, while all other symmetries, exact or approximate, are essentially dictated by theoretical consistency with the…

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