Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: complete leading order

@article{Ghiglieri2020GravitationalWB,
  title={Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: complete leading order},
  author={Jacopo Ghiglieri and G. S. Jackson and Mikko Laine and Y. Zhu},
  journal={Journal of High Energy Physics},
  year={2020},
  volume={2020},
  pages={1-30}
}
We compute the production rate of the energy density carried by gravitational waves emitted by a Standard Model plasma in thermal equilibrium, consistently to leading order in coupling constants for momenta k ∼ πT . Summing up the contributions from the full history of the universe, the highest temperature of the radiation epoch can be constrained by the so-called N eff parameter. The current theoretical uncertainty ∆ N eff ≤ 10 − 3 corresponds to T max ≤ 2 × 10 17 GeV. In the course of the… 

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