# Gravitational lensing by spinning black holes in astrophysics, and in the movie Interstellar

@article{James2015GravitationalLB, title={Gravitational lensing by spinning black holes in astrophysics, and in the movie Interstellar}, author={Oliver James and Eug{\'e}nie von Tunzelmann and Paul Franklin and Kip S. Thorne}, journal={Classical and Quantum Gravity}, year={2015}, volume={32} }

Interstellar is the first Hollywood movie to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. For this, our team at Double Negative Visual Effects, in collaboration with physicist Kip Thorne, developed a code called Double Negative Gravitational Renderer (DNGR) to solve the equations for ray-bundle (light-beam) propagation through the curved spacetime of a spinning (Kerr) black hole, and to render IMAX-quality, rapidly changing images. Our ray-bundle techniques…

## Figures from this paper

## 76 Citations

Observing supermassive black holes in virtual reality

- PhysicsComputational Astrophysics and Cosmology
- 2018

We present a 360∘ (i.e., 4π steradian) general-relativistic ray-tracing and radiative transfer calculations of accreting supermassive black holes. We perform state-of-the-art three-dimensional…

Lensing by Kerr black holes

- PhysicsPhysical Review D
- 2020

Interpreting horizon-scale observations of astrophysical black holes demands a general understanding of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. These may be divided into two classes: "direct" rays that…

GR Final Project Visualizing Spacetime around Black Holes and Neutron Stars

- Physics
- 2018

Neutron stars are a final stage in the lifetime of massive stars. They are relativistic objects with a strong gravitational field. Just like black holes, the curvature of spacetime around a neutron…

An Illustrated History of Black Hole Imaging : Personal Recollections (1972-2002)

- Physics
- 2019

The Event Horizon Telescope Consortium is on the verge to provide the first telescopic image of massive black holes SgrA* and M87* surrounded by accretion disks, at a resolution scale comparable to…

Seeing relativity-I: Ray tracing in a Schwarzschild metric to explore the maximal analytic extension of the metric and making a proper rendering of the stars

- PhysicsInternational Journal of Modern Physics D
- 2019

We present an implementation of a ray tracing code in the Schwarzschild metric. We aim at building a numerical code with a correct implementation of both special (aberration, amplification and…

Building interstellar's black hole: the gravitational renderer

- Art, PhysicsSIGGRAPH Talks
- 2015

DNGR (Double Negative Gravitational Renderer) is a new renderer which uses novel techniques for rendering in curved space-time which was adapted for scientific research, leading to new insights into gravitational lensing.

Photon regions and shadows of accelerated black holes

- Physics
- 2015

In an earlier paper, we have analytically determined the photon regions and the shadows of black holes of the Plebanski class of metrics which are also known as the Kerr–Newman–NUT–(anti-)de Sitter…

Non-linear Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Visualizing Warped Spacetime

- PhysicsVISIGRAPP
- 2021

A Monte Carlo approach for non-linear raytracing to render scenes in curved spacetime that can accurately resolve ray-object interactions and has the potential to create rich, physically plausible visualizations of complex phenomena.

Gravitational Lensing in Presence of Plasma: Strong Lens Systems, Black Hole Lensing and Shadow

- Physics
- 2017

In this article, we present an overview of the new developments in problems of the plasma influence on the effects of gravitational lensing, complemented by pieces of new material and relevant…

Strong gravitational lensing by rotating Simpson-Visser black holes

- PhysicsJournal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
- 2021

We investigate strong field gravitational lensing by rotating Simpson-Visser black hole, which has an additional parameter (0 ≤ l/2M ≤ 1), apart from mass (M) and rotation parameter (a). A rotating…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 104 REFERENCES

Extreme gravitational lensing near rotating black holes

- Physics
- 2005

We describe a new approach to calculating photon trajectories and gravitational lensing effects in the strong gravitational field of the Kerr black hole. These techniques are applied to explore both…

Optical caustics of Kerr spacetime: The full structure

- Physics
- 2008

I present an exhaustive numerical investigation of the optical caustics in gravitational lensing by a spinning black hole for an observer at infinity. Besides the primary caustic, I examine higher…

Viewing the Shadow of the Black Hole at the Galactic Center.

- PhysicsThe Astrophysical journal
- 2000

There exists a realistic expectation of imaging the event horizon of a black hole within the next few years, and it is shown that the shadow of Sgr A* may be observable with very long baseline interferometry at submillimeter wavelengths, assuming that the accretion flow is optically thin in this region of the spectrum.

Distortion of the stellar sky by a Schwarzschild black hole

- Physics
- 2010

The optical appearance of the stellar sky for an observer in the vicinity of a black hole is dominated by bending of light, the frequency shift, and the magnification caused by gravitational lensing…

Gravitational lensing by black holes

- Physics
- 2009

We review the theoretical aspects of gravitational lensing by black holes, and discuss the perspectives for realistic observations. We will first treat lensing by spherically symmetric black holes,…

TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS A*

- Physics
- 2014

The advent of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimeter-wave very long baseline interferometric array, has enabled spatially resolved studies of the subhorizon-scale structure for a handful of…

Visualizing Interstellar's Wormhole

- Physics
- 2015

Christopher Nolan's science fiction movie Interstellar offers a variety of opportunities for students in elementary courses on general relativity theory. This paper describes such opportunities,…

Interactive visualization of a thin disc around a Schwarzschild black hole

- Physics
- 2012

In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the…

EVIDENCE FOR LOW BLACK HOLE SPIN AND PHYSICALLY MOTIVATED ACCRETION MODELS FROM MILLIMETER-VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS A

- Physics
- 2011

Millimeter very long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr…

Light propagation in arbitrary spacetimes and the gravitational lens approximation

- Physics
- 1994

We reformulate the transport equation which determines the size, shape and orientation of infinitesimal light beams in arbitrary spacetimes. The behaviour of such light beams near vertices and…