Graves upper eyelid retraction.

  title={Graves upper eyelid retraction.},
  author={Antonio Augusto Velasco Cruz and Sara Filipa Teixeira Ribeiro and Denny Marcos Garcia and Patr{\'i}cia Mitiko Santello Akaishi and Carolina Trindade Pinto},
  journal={Survey of ophthalmology},
  volume={58 1},
Graves upper eyelid retraction (GUER) is the most common and characteristic sign of Graves orbitopathy. Despite being well recognized since the 19th century, GUER is still a subject of controversy. We review GUER, including historical aspects, diagnosis, methods of measurements, ocular surface abnormalities, etiology, and medical and surgical treatments. There is no consensus about the mechanisms of its etiology or the best surgical correction. There is a need for quantitative studies on the… CONTINUE READING

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