Graves' Disease.

  title={Graves' Disease.},
  author={Terry J. Smith and Laszlo Heged{\"u}s},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  volume={375 16},
Q: What is Graves’ disease? A: Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. The thyroid is a small gland in the front of the neck. It makes hormones called T3 and T4 that regulate how the body uses energy. Thyroid hormone levels are controlled by the pituitary, which is a pea-sized gland in the brain. It makes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which triggers the thyroid to make thyroid hormone. 

Primer on Graves’ Disease: What the Ophthalmologist Should Know and Do

This chapter will discuss the present state of knowledge regarding epidemiology, risk factors and pathophysiology of GD and review diagnosis and management of the disease with a focus on what the ophthalmologist should know and do.

Graves’ disease

The epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of Graves’ disease are discussed, the need for better therapeutics for its management is highlighted and a number of important advances are on the horizon.

Spectrum of thyroid disease in a single patient: A case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

A 65‐year‐old man with a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditi on Levothyroxine developed Graves' disease with ocular symptoms and was treated with teprotumumab without improvement. Total thyroidectomy

Graves’ Disease in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review

Pre- and postpartum planning and the effective management of Graves’ disease in women of childbearing age are necessary to prevent the pathogenesis of Graves' disease during pregnancy.

2022 Update on Clinical Management of Graves Disease and Thyroid Eye Disease.

Extrathyroidal Manifestations of Thyroid Disease: Graves Eye Disease.

Flash Pulmonary Edema: A Rare Presentation of Graves’ Disease

A case of a young woman who presented in the emergency room with acute onset of cough with mild hemoptysis and dyspnea at rest and the diagnosis of Graves’ disease in thyrotoxic crisis presenting with flash pulmonary edema is reported.

Graves' Disease Presenting as a Unilateral Breast Mass

It is important to keep a high index of suspicion for thyroid disease as hyperthyroid states may be deceiving in presenting with single organ system involvement.

Immunological Aspects of Graves' Ophthalmopathy

Based on the available medical literature, the immunological mechanism of GO pathogenesis has been summarized and particular attention was paid to the role of orbital fibroblasts and putative autoantigens.

Pathogenesis and Medical Management of Thyroid Eye Disease

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is caused by an inflammatory process involving the orbit and periorbital tissues in the setting of autoimmune thyroiditis. TED has been shown not only to impact visual and



Thyroid disease: a review for primary care.

The general pathophysiology of thyroid, the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease, and current screening recommendations are reviewed here.

Modern concepts of primary thyroid gland failure.

Therapy of hypothyroidism is easy, inexpensive, and precise, involving pure L-thyroxine and measuring dose requirements and efficacy by monitoring serum TSH concentrations.

5: Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

Signs and signs of hypothyroidism are often mild or subtle and, when there is clinical suspicion, thyroid function tests are needed; if serum TSH level is raised, free T4 and thyroid peroxidase antibody should be measured.

Diagnosis and management of Graves' disease.

  • J. Ginsberg
  • Medicine, Biology
    CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • 2003
Issues of diagnosis and management that will allow the primary care physician to identify patients with Graves' disease and guide them to recovery are focused on.

Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

The prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical hyperthyroidism, for example, effects on heart and bone mass, are discussed.

Neurologic aspects of thyroid dysfunction.

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common medical disorders that are often accompanied by diverse types of neurologic and neuromuscular dysfunction. Although some of these associated disorders

The many 'faces' of Graves' disease. Part 2. Practical diagnostic testing and management options.

Diagnosis is not always obvious, and this common multisystem syndrome requires attentive clinical evaluation, but new laboratory and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures now allow precise biochemical and pathophysiologic confirmation of the disease.

Thyrotropin-producing pituitary adenoma associated with Graves' disease.

Both the immunomodulatory effects of octreotide on intrathyroidal lymphocytes and rapid reductions in TSH may contribute to the onset of Graves' disease.

Treatment of Graves' disease: the American way.

  • E. Levy
  • Medicine
    Bailliere's clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 1997

Thyroid function tests and hypothyroidism

Paper p 311 It is extraordinary that more than 100 years since the first description of the treatment of hypothyroidism and the current availability of refined diagnostic tests, debate is