Graphitic carbon nitride materials: variation of structure and morphology and their use as metal-free catalysts

  title={Graphitic carbon nitride materials: variation of structure and morphology and their use as metal-free catalysts},
  author={Arne Thomas and A. Fischer and F. Goettmann and M. Antonietti and Jens M{\"u}ller and R. Schl{\"o}gl and J. Carlsson},
  journal={Journal of Materials Chemistry},
Graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, can be made by polymerization of cyanamide, dicyandiamide or melamine. Depending on reaction conditions, different materials with different degrees of condensation, properties and reactivities are obtained. The firstly formed polymeric C3N4 structure, melon, with pendant amino groups, is a highly ordered polymer. Further reaction leads to more condensed and less defective C3N4 species, based on tri-s-triazine (C6N7) units as elementary building blocks. High… Expand
Emerging Chemical Functionalization of g-C3N4: Covalent/Noncovalent Modifications and Applications.
The comprehensive survey is conducted on g-C3N4 chemical functionalization strategies including covalent and noncovalent approaches and it is believed that this work will inspire scientists and readers to conduct research with the aim of exploring otherfunctionalization strategies for this material in numerous applications. Expand
Polymeric graphitic carbon nitride as a heterogeneous organocatalyst: from photochemistry to multipurpose catalysis to sustainable chemistry.
The "polymer chemistry" of g-C(3)N(4) is described, how band positions and bandgap can be varied by doping and copolymerization, and how the organic solid can be textured to make it an effective heterogenous catalyst. Expand
Mesoporous carbon nitrides: synthesis, functionalization, and applications.
This review article summarizes and highlights the existing literature covering every aspect of Mesoporous carbon nitrides including their templating synthesis, modification and functionalization, and potential applications of these MCN materials with an overview of the key and relevant results. Expand
Mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride materials: synthesis and modifications
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), as a kind of polymeric semiconductor that has unique electronic structure and excellent chemical stability, has attracted increasing attention of researchers.Expand
Enhancement of the graphitic carbon nitride surface properties from calcium salts as templates
Abstract A graphitic carbon nitride material with enhanced surface properties has been successfully synthesized from guanidine monohydrochloride used as carbon nitride precursor, and from calciumExpand
Cubic mesoporous graphitic carbon(IV) nitride: an all-in-one chemosensor for selective optical sensing of metal ions.
It was shown that the catalytic and photocatalytic activity of mpg-C3N4 (“mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride”) greatly improved over that of the bulk material and could be used as a photocatalyst for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. Expand
Graphitic carbon nitride materials: controllable synthesis and applications in fuel cells and photocatalysis
Graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4) are becoming increasingly significant due to the theoretical prediction of their unusual properties and promising applications ranging from photocatalysis,Expand
Confining the polymerization degree of graphitic carbon nitride in porous zeolite-Y and its luminescence
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has aroused broad interest in the field of photocatalysis and luminescence as a kind of metal-free semiconductor with a suitable band gap of ∼2.7 eV. The propertiesExpand
Synthesis of Graphitic Carbon Nitride on the Surface of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles
A composite material consisting of graphitic carbon nitride and iron(II,III) oxide (g-C3N4/Fe3O4) and having photocatalytic and magnetic properties has been synthesized via single-step thermalExpand
Synthesis and comparative study of the photocatalytic performance of hierarchically porous polymeric carbon nitrides
Abstract Graphitic carbon nitride materials with tri- s -triazine and s -triazine based structures were prepared by thermal condensation of melamine (CNT) and by solution reaction of cyanuricExpand


C3N4: Dream or reality? Solvothermal synthesis as macroscopic samples of the C3N4 graphitic form
In order to prepare C3N4 as macroscopic sample, two synthesis attempts of the graphitic variety were carried out. The first consists on the condensation of melamine and cyanuric chloride (P = 130Expand
Characterization of well-crystallized graphitic carbon nitride nanocrystallites via a benzene-thermal route at low temperatures
Abstract Well-crystallized graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanocrystallites have been prepared via a novel benzene-thermal reaction between C3N3Cl3 and NaNH2 at 180–220 °C for 8–12 h. X-rayExpand
Template assisted formation of micro-and nanotubular carbon nitride materials
Abstract Micro- and nanotubes of an amorphous carbon nitride material were synthesized by metathesis reactions between cyanuric chloride (C3N3Cl3) and different nitrogen sources, such as Li2(CN2) orExpand
Turbostratic carbon nitride prepared by pyrolysis of melamine
Since the theoretical calculations predicted that the hardness of C3N4 covalent compound might be comparable to or even higher than that of diamond [1, 2], many attempts have been made to synthesisExpand
Synthesis of Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nitride Networks from an Energetic Molecular Azide Precursor
Nitrogen-rich carbon nitrides are produced as amorphous, bulk solids from the slow thermal decomposition of 2,4,6-triazido-1,3,5-triazine [(C3N3)(N3)3]. This energetic molecular azide is thermallyExpand
Preparation and Characterization of Well‐Ordered Hexagonal Mesoporous Carbon Nitride
The synthesis and characteristic properties of a highly ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN-1), were analyzed. The ordered MCN-1 structure was investigated by powder X-ray diffractionExpand
Nitrogen-rich carbon nitride network materials via the thermal decomposition of 2,5,8-triazido-s-heptazine.
IR and NMR spectral similarities between the amorphous CNx products and several previously reported heptazine molecules and extended heptazido-s-heptazine networks supports significant retention of hePTazine motif in these amorphously carbon nitride extended materials. Expand
Template-directed synthesis of highly ordered nanoporous graphitic carbon nitride through polymerization of cyanamide
Abstract The fabrication of well-ordered nanoporous graphitic carbon nitride by condensation of cyanamide (CN–NH 2 ) as a molecular precursor using a colloidal silica crystalline array as a templateExpand
Synthesis and characterization of graphite-like carbon nitride nanobelts and nanotubes
Carbon nitride nanobelts and nanotubes were synthesized through polycondensation of dicyandiamide (H4C2N4) and melamine (C3N6H6) at 290 °C and 4.5–5 MPa. The as-synthesized samples were investigatedExpand
Sites for CO2 activation over amine-functionalized mesoporous Ti(Al)-SBA-15 catalysts
Activation of CO2 and its utilization in the synthesis of chloropropene and styrene carbonates over functionalized, mesoporous SBA-15 solids, have been investigated. The surface basicity of SBA-15Expand