Grape expectations: The role of cognitive influences in color–flavor interactions

  title={Grape expectations: The role of cognitive influences in color–flavor interactions},
  author={Maya U. Shankar and Carmel A. Levitan and Charles Spence},
  journal={Consciousness and Cognition},
On the Relationship(s) Between Color and Taste/Flavor
  • C. Spence
  • Psychology
    Experimental psychology
  • 2019
A separate body of research linking color and taste has emerged from the burgeoning literature on the crossmodal correspondences, meaning that the findings from one domain may not necessarily always be transferable to the other, as is often seemingly assumed.
What Influences Humans Flavor Perception to Skittles
Previous studies have shown that visual information can affect flavor perception. The aim of the present work was to study how the information of Skittles (Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company China), influences
An Expectation-Based Approach to Explaining the Crossmodal Influence of Color on Orthonasal Odor Identification: The Influence of Expertise
In a previous series of experiments, the present authors demonstrated that when people are asked to identify the flavors of various drinks on the basis of orthonasal olfactory cues, their judgments
An expectations-based approach to explaining the cross-modal influence of color on orthonasal olfactory identification: The influence of the degree of discrepancy
There was a significant difference in the proportion of responses that were consistent with participants’ color-based expectations in conditions of low as compared with high discrepancy, indicating that the degree of discrepancy between an individual’s actual and expected experience can significantly affect the extent to which color influences judgments of flavor identity.
Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength
The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors, which highlights the role of color congruence and color–word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.
The Effects of Food Color on Perceived Flavor: A Factorial Investigation in India
ABSTRACT We extend research testing the effects of food color on flavor to a new cultural setting—India. We test color’s effect at three levels: flavor identification, perception, and preference. One
The Crucial Role of Color in the Perception of Beverages
By and large, the research that has been published to date shows that people’s judgment of the identity of a beverage‘s taste, aroma (or bouquet), and flavor can all be influenced by changing the color of the drink that they happen to be evaluating.
Color psychology: effects of perceiving color on psychological functioning in humans.
The empirical review focuses especially on color in achievement and affiliation/attraction contexts, but it also covers work on consumer behavior as well as food and beverage evaluation and consumption and conduct a review of emerging empirical findings.
On the psychological impact of food colour
Colour is the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting people’s expectations regarding the likely taste and flavour of food and drink. To date, a large body of


The Effects of Food Color on Perceived Flavor
This research investigates the role that food color plays in conferring identity, meaning and liking to those foods and beverages that assume many flavor varieties. In a taste test experiment
The multisensory perception of flavor
Assessing the role of color cues and people's beliefs about color-flavor associations on the discrimination of the flavor of sugar-coated chocolates.
It is demonstrated that people's expectations concerning color-flavor associations can modulate their flavor discrimination responses, even for a familiar food product such as Smarties.
Odor/taste integration and the perception of flavor
It is proposed that flavor perception depends upon neural processes occurring in chemosensory regions of the brain, including the anterior insula, frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as upon the interaction of this chemosENSory “flavor network” with other heteromodal regions including the posterior parietal cortex and possibly the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex.
Effect of Color on Judgments of Food Aroma and Flavour Intensity in Young and Elderly Adults
The hypothesis was tested that subjects' judgments of food aroma and flavour strength will be increasingly influenced by food color as the chemosensory differences between foods become less apparent, and the results failed to support the hypothesis that color alters the perceived intensity of the food aroma or flavor.
Color as a factor in food choice.
  • F. Clydesdale
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
  • 1993
From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception,