Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis: ghost response of an immunocompromised host?

@article{Baig2014GranulomatousAE,
  title={Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis: ghost response of an immunocompromised host?},
  author={Abdul Mannan Baig},
  journal={Journal of medical microbiology},
  year={2014},
  volume={63 Pt 12},
  pages={
          1763-6
        }
}
  • A. Baig
  • Published 1 December 2014
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of medical microbiology
Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris spp. are known to cause fatal amoebic encephalitis. Here, I attempt to draw attention to these cases, which are reported as ‘granulomatous amoebic encephalitis’ (GAE), and their occurrence in immunocompromised individuals and patients with AIDS. GAE, like any other granulomatous inflammation, can occur only in the presence of ample numbers of CD4 Tlymphocytes. Extensive reviews of manuscripts published over a period of 50 years on this… 
Acanthamoeba castellanii encephalitis in a patient with AIDS: a case report and literature review.
TLDR
The case of a 27-year-old man with AIDS who presented to a hospital in Atlanta with tonic-clonic seizures and headache is presented as a reminder to the clinician to consider protozoal infections, especially free-living amoeba, in the immunocompromised host with a CNS infection refractory to traditional antimicrobial therapy.
Pathogenesis of amoebic encephalitis: Are the amoebae being credited to an 'inside job' done by the host immune response?
  • A. Baig
  • Biology, Medicine
    Acta tropica
  • 2015
TLDR
It is established that with N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia spp.
An Acute Case of Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis-Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection
TLDR
A 74-year-old woman who exhibited drowsiness was referred to a hospital and gradually progressed to a comatose condition with notable brain deterioration of unknown cause, although brain herniation was suspected on follow-up MRI.
A proposed cascade of vascular events leading to granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.
TLDR
This work proposes pathogenetic mechanisms that explain the significant latent period of several months before the appearance of clinical manifestations of Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba.
Definition of Opportunistic Infections in Immunocompromised Children on the Basis of Etiologies and Clinical Features: A Summary for Practical Purposes
TLDR
The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive and ‘easy to read’ text that briefly summarises the currently available knowledge about OIs in order to define when an infection should be considered as opportunistic in pediatrics as a result of an underlying congenital or acquired immune-deficit.
Effect of oxidative stress on vital indicators of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype)
TLDR
It is shown that under oxidative stress, the defense reactions of the parasite are in part mediated by increasing its antioxidant activity, which is important for the survival of the parasites.
Various brain-eating amoebae: the protozoa, the pathogenesis, and the disease
Among various genera of free-living amoebae prevalent in nature, some members are identified as causative agents of human encephalitis, in which Naegleria fowleri followed by Acanthamoeba spp. and
CPR-Content 15-4
  • 2019

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES
The increasing importance of Acanthamoeba infections.
TLDR
Results implicate macrophages as playing an effector role against Acanthamoeba and suggest immune modulation as a potential alternative therapeutic mode of treatment for these infections.
The Increasing Importance of Acanthamoeba Infections1
TLDR
Results implicate macrophages as playing an effector role against Acanthamoeba and suggest immune modulation as a potential alternative therapeutic mode of treatment for these infections.
Infections with free-living amebae.
  • G. Visvesvara
  • Biology, Medicine
    Handbook of clinical neurology
  • 2013
TLDR
The biology of these amebae, clinical manifestations, molecular and immunological diagnosis, and epidemiological features associated with GAE and PAM are discussed.
Histopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical diagnosis of amebic meningoencephalitis
TLDR
The term amebic meningoencephalitis describes better the histopathologic findings than the currently used classification of primary amebi meningoENCEphalitis and granulomatous amEBic encephalitis.
Granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient.
TLDR
This study demonstrates that the diagnosis of amoebic encephalitis represents a clinical challenge and confirming diagnoses are made, in most cases, after death.
Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis in a Patient with AIDS: Isolation of Acanthamoeba sp. Group II from Brain Tissue and Successful Treatment with Sulfadiazine and Fluconazole
TLDR
This is the first case of AIDS-associated GAE responding favorably to therapy, and the existence of a solitary brain lesion, absence of other sites of infection, and intense cellular response in spite of a very low CD4 count conditioned the favorable outcome.
Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by leptomyxid amebae in an HIV-infected patient.
MR images of granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by leptomyxid amebae in an HIV-infected patient showed both heterogeneous and ring-enhancing hemorrhagic lesions. The brain was diffusely
Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis presenting as a cerebral mass lesion
SummaryClinical and brain biopsy or autopsy findings in six patients with Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE) due toAcanthamoeba sp. were characterized by focal neurological symptoms, increased
Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba Amebic Encephalitis with Neurotoxoplasmosis Coinfection in a Patient with Advanced HIV Infection
TLDR
This patient is the first reported case of an HIV-infected person with dual Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection.
Granulomatous inflammation--a review.
TLDR
The initiation and development of granulomatous inflammation is discussed, stressing the importance of persistence of the inciting agent and the complex role of the immune system, not only in the perpetuation of the granulOMatous response but also in the development of necrosis and fibrosis.
...
1
2
...