Grammatical evolution

@article{ONeill2001GrammaticalE,
  title={Grammatical evolution},
  author={Michael O'Neill and Conor Ryan},
  journal={IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput.},
  year={2001},
  volume={5},
  pages={349-358}
}
We present grammatical evolution, an evolutionary algorithm that can evolve complete programs in an arbitrary language using a variable-length binary string. The binary genome determines which production rules in a Backus-Naur form grammar definition are used in a genotype-to-phenotype mapping process to a program. We demonstrate how expressions and programs of arbitrary complexity may be evolved and compare its performance to genetic programming. 
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