Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow

@article{Gudmundsson2016GradualCC,
  title={Gradual caldera collapse at B{\'a}rdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow},
  author={Magn{\'u}s Tumi Gudmundsson and Krist{\'i}n J{\'o}nsd{\'o}ttir and Andrew J. Hooper and Eoghan P. Holohan and S{\ae}mundur A. Halld{\'o}rsson and Benedikt G. {\'O}feigsson and Simone Cesca and Krist{\'i}n S. Vogfj{\"o}rd and Freysteinn Sigmundsson and Th{\'o}rd{\'i}s H{\"o}gnad{\'o}ttir and P{\'a}ll Einarsson and Olgeir Sigmarsson and Alexander Helmut Jarosch and Kristj{\'a}n J{\'o}nasson and Eyj{\'o}lfur Magn{\'u}sson and Sigr{\'u}n Hreinsd{\'o}ttir and Marco Bagnardi and Michelle Maree Parks and Vala Hj{\"o}rleifsd{\'o}ttir and Finnur P{\'a}lsson and Thomas R. Walter and Martin P. J. Sch{\"o}pfer and Sebastian Heimann and Hannah Iona Reynolds and St{\'e}phanie Dumont and Enikő Bali and Gudmundur H. Gudfinnsson and Torsten Dahm and Matthew James Roberts and Martin Hensch and Joaqu{\'i}n M. C. Belart and Karsten Spaans and Sigurdur Jakobsson and Gunnar B Gudmundsson and Hildur Mar{\'i}a Fridriksd{\'o}ttir and Vincent Drouin and Tobias D{\"u}rig and Guðfinna Aðalgeirsd{\'o}ttir and Morten S. Riishuus and Gro Birkefeldt M{\o}ller Pedersen and Tayo van Boeckel and Bj{\"o}rn Oddsson and Melissa Anne Pfeffer and Sara Barsotti and Baldur Bergsson and Amy Donovan and Mike R. Burton and Alessandro Aiuppa},
  journal={Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={353}
}
Driven to collapse Volcanic eruptions occur frequently, but only rarely are they large enough to cause the top of the mountain to collapse and form a caldera. Gudmundsson et al. used a variety of geophysical tools to monitor the caldera formation that accompanied the 2014 Bárdarbunga volcanic eruption in Iceland. The volcanic edifice became unstable as magma from beneath Bárdarbunga spilled out into the nearby Holuhraun lava field. The timing of the gradual collapse revealed that it is the… 
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