Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow

  title={Gradual caldera collapse at B{\'a}rdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow},
  author={M. Gudmundsson and Krist{\'i}n J{\'o}nsd{\'o}ttir and A. Hooper and E. Holohan and S. Halld{\'o}rsson and B. {\'O}feigsson and S. Cesca and Krist{\'i}n S. Vogfj{\"o}rd and F. Sigmundsson and Th{\'o}rd{\'i}s H{\"o}gnad{\'o}ttir and P. Einarsson and O. Sigmarsson and A. Jarosch and K. Jonasson and E. Magn{\'u}sson and S. Hreinsd{\'o}ttir and M. Bagnardi and M. Parks and V. Hj{\"o}rleifsd{\'o}ttir and F. P{\'a}lsson and T. Walter and M. Sch{\"o}pfer and S. Heimann and H. Reynolds and S. Dumont and E. Bali and G. Gudfinnsson and T. Dahm and M. Roberts and M. Hensch and J. M. Belart and K. Spaans and S. Jakobsson and G. Gudmundsson and H. Fridriksd{\'o}ttir and V. Drouin and T. D{\"u}rig and G. Aðalgeirsd{\'o}ttir and M. Riishuus and G. Pedersen and Tayo van Boeckel and B. Oddsson and M. Pfeffer and S. Barsotti and B. Bergsson and A. Donovan and M. Burton and A. Aiuppa},
Driven to collapse Volcanic eruptions occur frequently, but only rarely are they large enough to cause the top of the mountain to collapse and form a caldera. Gudmundsson et al. used a variety of geophysical tools to monitor the caldera formation that accompanied the 2014 Bárdarbunga volcanic eruption in Iceland. The volcanic edifice became unstable as magma from beneath Bárdarbunga spilled out into the nearby Holuhraun lava field. The timing of the gradual collapse revealed that it is the… Expand
Magma reservoir failure and the onset of caldera collapse at Kīlauea Volcano in 2018
A model of time-evolving reservoir depressurization is developed to jointly explain lava lake withdrawal rate and the rate and spatial pattern of ground subsidence obtained from radar satellites and a dense local monitoring network. Expand
Calderas collapse as magma flows into rifts
The most recent caldera-forming events at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'ei, in 2018 and at Bárðarbunga, Iceland, in 2014–2015 formed by a different mechanism, showing the importance of distant volcanic rift zones. Expand
From prodigious volcanic degassing to caldera subsidence and quiescence at Ambrym (Vanuatu): the influence of regional tectonics
Recurring rifting episodes, favored by stress induced by the D’Entrecasteaux Ridge collision against the New Hebrides arc, lead to progressive subsidence of Ambrym’s caldera and concurrent draining of the lava lakes. Expand
From major caldera subsidence to quiescence at the world’s top volcanic degassing source, Ambrym, Vanuatu: the influence of regional tectonics
Eruptive activity shapes volcanic edifices. The formation of caldera depressions is often associated with major collapse events, emplacing conspicuous pyroclastic deposits. However, calderaExpand
Cyclic lava effusion during the 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano
It is concluded that the two types of eruption rate cycles were controlled by two distinct processes, and pressure-driven surges in eruption rate were driven by pressure transients induced by the summit collapses and transmitted through the magma conduit over a distance of 40 km. Expand
Caldera resurgence during the 2018 eruption of Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos Islands
A unique multiparametric dataset is combined to show how the 2018 eruption of Sierra Negra contributed to caldera resurgence, and the mechanisms of eruption in the absence of well-developed rift systems are revealed. Expand
The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano
Careful historical observation and monitoring of Kīlauea enabled successful forecasting of hazardous events, and cyclic inflation, deflation, and eventual collapse of the summit was tied to lava eruption from lower East Rift Zone fissures. Expand
Subglacial volcanic activity above a lateral dyke path during the 2014–2015 Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun rifting episode, Iceland
The rifting episode associated with the Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun eruption in 2014–2015 included the first observations of major dyke propagation under ice. Three shallow ice depressions (ice cauldrons)Expand
Magma plumbing beneath collapse caldera volcanic systems
Abstract Advancing our knowledge of caldera volcanoes enables better assessment of hazard and more efficient harnessing of resources. In this paper we review developments in concepts of magma storageExpand
Seismic imaging of Santorini: Subsurface constraints on caldera collapse and present-day magma recharge
Abstract Volcanic calderas are surface depressions formed by roof collapse following evacuation of magma from an underlying reservoir. The mechanisms of caldera formation are debated and predictExpand


Caldera collapse during the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, Japan
A collapsed caldera, 1.6 km in diameter and 450 m in depth, was formed at the summit of Miyakejima Volcano during the 2000 eruption. The collapsed caldera appeared on 8 July, with a minor phreaticExpand
Katmai volcanic cluster and the great eruption of 1912
In June 1912, the world9s largest twentieth century eruption broke out through flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age near the base of Trident volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. The 60 h ash-flowExpand
Magma dynamics and collapse mechanisms during four historic caldera‐forming events
[1] Four historic caldera-forming events were studied to understand the relationship of magma withdrawal processes and caldera subsidence mechanisms. Two calderas are silicic (Katmai in 1912 andExpand
Temporal monitoring of subglacial volcanoes with TanDEM-X — Application to the 2014–2015 eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland
On August 29, 2014, a lava eruption commenced in the Holuhraun plain, north-east of the Barðarbunga caldera in Iceland. The eruption ended on February 27, 2015, thus lasting for a period of about 6Expand
Caldera Collapse in the Galapagos Islands, 1968: The largest known collapse since 1912 followed a flank eruption and explosive volcanism within the caldera.
The summit caldera of Isla Fernandina, a large, uninhabited basaltic shield volcano, was further enlarged by 1 to 2 km(3) in June 1968. A small quake and large vapor cloud on 11 June were followed 4Expand
On the formation of calderas during ignimbrite eruptions
Many large calderas result from the eruption of substantial volumes (tens or hundreds of km3) of silicic pyroclastics. Such events often begin with an airfall phase and progress to the generation ofExpand
April 2007 collapse of Piton de la Fournaise: A new example of caldera formation
Collapse calderas are frequent in the evolution of volcanic systems, but very few have formed during historical times. Piton de la Fournaise is one of the world's most active basaltic shieldExpand
The collapse of Bárðarbunga Caldera, Iceland
Lying below Vatnajokull ice cap in Iceland, Barðarbunga stratovolcano began experiencing wholesale caldera collapse in 2014 August 16, one of the largest such events recorded in the modernExpand
Submarine flank eruption preceding caldera subsidence during the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, Japan
During the early part of a seismic swarm preceding eruption and caldera formation at Miyakejima Volcano, discoloured sea surfaces were observed ∼1.5 km off the western coast of Miyakejima on 27 JuneExpand
Geothermal activity in the subglacial Katla caldera, Iceland, 1999–2005, studied with radar altimetry
Abstract The Katla caldera is located under the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap and is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in Iceland due to major jökulhlaups that accompany eruptions. Subglacial geothermalExpand