Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events

  title={Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events},
  author={Daniel J. Simons and Christopher F. Chabris},
  pages={1059 - 1074}
With each eye fixation, we experience a richly detailed visual world. Yet recent work on visual integration and change direction reveals that we are surprisingly unaware of the details of our environment from one view to the next: we often do not detect large changes to objects and scenes (‘change blindness’). Furthermore, without attention, we may not even perceive objects (‘inattentional blindness’). Taken together, these findings suggest that we perceive and remember only those objects and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The role of unattended distractors in sustained inattentional blindness

It is concluded that attending to target items on the basis of attentional set, but not active ignoring of nontargets items, is sufficient for the occurrence of sustained inattentional blindness.

Misdirection, attention and awareness: Inattentional blindness reveals temporal relationship between eye movements and visual awareness

A magic trick is designed that could be used to investigate how misdirection can prevent people from perceiving a visually salient event, thus offering a novel paradigm to examine inattentional blindness and demonstrates how overt and covert attention can be spatially dissociated.

Sustained Inattentional Blindness: The Role of Location in the Detection of Unexpected Dynamic Events

Attempts to understand visual attention have produced models based on location, in which attention selects particular regions of space, and models based on other visual attributes (e.g., in which

Expectation-based blindness: Predictions about object categories gate awareness of focally attended objects

Selective attention gates access to conscious awareness, resulting in surprising failures to notice clearly visible but unattended objects (‘inattentional blindness’). Here, we demonstrate that

Failures to see: Attentive blank stares revealed by change blindness

Inattentional Blindness : A Failure of the Visual System ?

Inattentional blindness, the act of failing to notice clearly visible, salient objects in one’s environment when engaged in a task is of great interest due to both its commonality and its overall

Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

The results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities.

How not to be Seen: The Contribution of Similarity and Selective Ignoring to Sustained Inattentional Blindness

A new approach to the study of sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events is presented in order to explore the roles of similarity, distinctiveness, and attentional set in the detection of unexpected objects.

Auditory Attention Causes Visual Inattentional Blindness

The data imply that listening to the radio while driving, or to a portable audio player while walking or biking, can impair their reactions to objects or events that the authors do not expect.



Failure to detect changes to attended objects in motion pictures

Our intuition that we richly represent the visual details of our environment is illusory. When viewing a scene, we seem to use detailed representations of object properties and interobject relations

Attenuated Change Blindness for Exogenously Attended Items in a Flicker Paradigm

When two scenes are alternately displayed, separated by a mask, even large, repeated changes between the scenes often go unnoticed for surprisingly long durations. Change blindness of this sort is

Perception without attention: evidence of grouping under conditions of inattention.

  • C. MooreH. Egeth
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1997
The results suggest that Gestalt grouping does occur without attention but that the patterns thus formed may not be encoded in memory without attention.

Inattentional Blindness as a Function of Proximity to the Focus of Attention

This study demonstrates that the effect of distance is similar under conditions of inattention, and suggests that low-level stimulus characteristics (eg location) may play an important role in the detection of unexpected stimuli.

Current Approaches to Change Blindness

Across saccades, blinks, blank screens, movie cuts, and other interruptions, observers fail to detect substantial changes to the visual details of objects and scenes. This inability to spot changes

Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction

Recent research on change detection has documented surprising failures to detect visual changes occurring between views of a scene, suggesting the possibility that visual representations contain few

Change blindness

People often fail to notice large changes to visual scenes, a phenomenon now known as change blindness. The extent of change blindness in visual perception suggests limits on our capacity to encode,

In Sight, Out of Mind: When Object Representations Fail

Models of human visual memory often presuppose an extraordinary ability to recognize and identify objects, based on evidence for nearly flawless recognition of hundreds or even thousands of pictures

Change Blindness Blindness: The Metacognitive Error of Overestimating Change-detection Ability

Recent research has demonstrated that subjects fail to detect large between-view changes to natural and artificial scenes. Yet, most people (including psychologists) believe that they would detect

The Role of Fixation Position in Detecting Scene Changes Across Saccades

Target objects presented within color images of naturalistic scenes were deleted or rotated during a saccade to or from the target object or to a control region of the scene. Despite instructions to