Good for women, good for men, bad for people: Simpson's paradox and the importance of sex-specific analysis in observational studies.

@article{Baker2001GoodFW,
  title={Good for women, good for men, bad for people: Simpson's paradox and the importance of sex-specific analysis in observational studies.},
  author={Stuart G. Baker and Barnett S. Kramer},
  journal={Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine},
  year={2001},
  volume={10 9},
  pages={867-72}
}
Even if a medial intervention has a beneficial effect in both men and women, an observational study that combines data from men and women can lead to the incorrect conclusion that treatment has a harmful effect. This is an example of Simpson's paradox, which although uncommon in practice, does, in fact, occur (Wainer H. Simpson's paradox. Chance 1999;12:43). More importantly, it is likely that in an observational study, a related result will occur; namely, ignoring sex in the analysis will lead… CONTINUE READING
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