author={Andrew M. Holub and Todd K. Shackelford},
  journal={Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior},



First record of Halidrys siliquosa on the Portuguese coast: counter-intuitive range expansion?

The occurrence of the pod weed, Halidrys siliquosa , is recorded for the first time on the Portuguese coast. Several specimens of this brown algae were observed attached to the rocky surface in

Mating System and Reproductive Biology of a Temperate Wrasse, Halichoeres semicinctus

Monitoring of the reproductive behavior and mating system of the Rock Wrasse was recorded and monitored around Big Fisherman Cove, Santa Catalina Island, CA from April 2001 to September 2002 to suggest a context-dependent, dualistic mating system that may act to increase opportunities for mating and thus, their overall reproductive output.

Female control : sexual selection by cryptic female choice

Cryptic female choice establishes a new bridge between sexual selection theory and reproductive physiology, in particular the physiological effects of male seminal products on female reproductive processes, such as sperm transport, oviposition, and remating.

The varied ways of being male and female

  • L. Schärer
  • Biology
    Molecular reproduction and development
  • 2017
A fascinating collection of six articles in this special issue on Hermaphroditism & Sex Determination impressively documents some important challenges to the understanding of sex determination, and the specification of male and female reproductive function when these need to occur within the same individual rather than in two separate individuals.


The results suggest that genetic forces might contribute to the evolution of self-fertilization to the same extent in animals and plants, although the high proportion of intermediate outcrossing suggests a significant role of ecological factors in animals.

Sex and violence in hermaphrodites

Differences in objectives between males and females are a driving force in the evolution of copulatory mechanisms. Hermaphrodites can also have sexual conflicts, but caused by opposing sexual

A reconstruction of sexual modes throughout animal evolution

The results suggest that mutations promoting hermaphroditism have historically been more likely to invade gonochoristic populations than vice versa and provide a framework for future inquiries into the correlation of these transitions with genes, behaviors, and physiology.

The Reversible Sex of Gonochoristic Fish: Insights and Consequences

This review discusses sex reversal in gonochoristic fish, with the coexistence of genetic and environmental influences and studies on epigenetics are presented, since it links the environment, gene expression, and sex reversal, notably the association of DNA methylation in sex reversal.

Diversity and Plasticity of Sex Determination and Differentiation in Fishes

This review first discusses genetic-orientated sex determination mechanisms, then addresses the gonadal sex differentiation process in a gonochoristic fish, using an example of the Nile tilapia, and discusses various types of sex change in hermaphrodite fishes.

Sexual selection favors harmful mating in hermaphrodites more than in gonochorists.

The authors' analyses indicate that hermaphrodites are more prone to be caught in costly escalations than gonochorists and discuss the implications for the evolution of gender expression in animals and plants.