In this paper we present evidence that a single low dose of the natural synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), inhibits ovulation induced by LH in proestrous-hypophysectomized rats. Rats hypophysectomized by the parapharyngeal route in the morning of proestrus received an intravenous injection of 100 or 300 ng GnRH at 1400 h immediately followed by 1.0 microgram LH per 100 g bw. In control groups, either one or both hormones were replaced with 0.9% NaCl. Ovulation was assessed the following morning by counting the ova present in oviductal flushings. All the rats treated with LH alone ovulated, and the addition of GnRH reduced significantly the number of ovulating rats and the number of ova per ovulating rat. In other groups of rats hypophysectomized in the morning of proestrus and treated in the same way, ovarian or adrenal secretory rates of estradiol and/or progesterone were measured after cannulation of the corresponding vein, in the afternoon of proestrus. In these animals, GnRH failed to inhibit either the ovarian progesterone surge observed 2 h after LH administration, or the adrenal progesterone secretion. All hypophysectomized rats showed lower ovarian secretory rate of estradiol than intact rats; this rate was not affected by treatment with LH or LH plus GnRH. The systemic estradiol levels in plasma of hypophysectomized rats were distributed within a range of 20 pg/ml to 50 pg/ml. The number of rats whose levels were above 21 pg/ml on estrus day was significantly higher in rats receiving 300 ng GnRH as compared to those receiving 100 ng GnRH, reaching values that surpassed the concentration found in intact, untreated animals at the same time of estrus. This effect did not depend on LH administration.