Goldstone and Higgs modes of photons inside a cavity

@article{YiXiang2013GoldstoneAH,
  title={Goldstone and Higgs modes of photons inside a cavity},
  author={Yu Yi-Xiang and Jinwu Ye and Wu-Ming Liu},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
  year={2013},
  volume={3}
}
Goldstone and Higgs modes have been detected in various condensed matter, cold atom and particle physics experiments. Here, we demonstrate that the two modes can also be observed in optical systems with only a few (artificial) atoms inside a cavity. We establish this connection by studying the U(1)/Z2 Dicke model where N qubits (atoms) coupled to a single photon mode. We determine the Goldstone and Higgs modes inside the super-radiant phase and their corresponding spectral weights by performing… 

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