Goals: an approach to motivation and achievement.

@article{Elliott1988GoalsAA,
  title={Goals: an approach to motivation and achievement.},
  author={Elaine Elliott and Carol S. Dweck},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1988},
  volume={54 1},
  pages={
          5-12
        }
}
This study tested a framework in which goals are proposed to be central determinants of achievement patterns. Learning goals, in which individuals seek to increase their competence, were predicted to promote challenge-seeking and a mastery-oriented response to failure regardless of perceived ability. Performance goals, in which individuals seek to gain favorable judgments of their competence or avoid negative judgments, were predicted to produce challenge-avoidance and learned helplessness when… 
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