Glycerolysis of fats and methyl esters — Status, review and critique

  title={Glycerolysis of fats and methyl esters — Status, review and critique},
  author={Norman O. V. Sonntag},
  journal={Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society},
  • N. Sonntag
  • Published 1 October 1982
  • Chemistry
  • Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society
With the possible exception of catalytic hydrogenation, perhaps no unit operation within the realm of oleochemistry is as thoroughly complex as that of glycerolysis. Among the misconceptions and half-truths that prevail concerning the glycerolysis of fats are the notions that it involves a strictly random distribution of acyl groups among all of the available hydroxyl groups, that the solubility of glycerol in the fat at the reaction temperature determines the yield of monoglyceride that may be… 
Synthesis and characterization of mono‐acylglycerols through the glycerolysis of methyl esters obtained from linseed oil
Here, the production and characterization of mono-acylglycerols through the glycerolysis of biodiesel, a methyl ester mixture, obtained from linseed oil, is investigated and the most efficient was 5% NaOH in a 1:5 biodiesel–glycerol molar ratio with 10 h reaction time.
Progress in Synthesis of Monoglycerides for Use in Food and Pharmaceuticals
The purpose of this article is to review the main challenges in the synthesis of MGs from triglycerides (TGs) contained in the various fixed oils and application thereof in the food and pharmaceuticals.
Production of glycerol monolaurate‐enriched monoacylglycerols by lipase‐catalyzed glycerolysis from coconut oil
In order to study the potential of producing glycerol monolaurate (GML) under a mild condition, enzymatic catalyzed glycerolysis in microemulsion system and molecular distillation were used to
Monoacylglycerol Synthesis by Glycerolysis of Soybean Oil Using Alkaline Ionic Liquid
The synthesis of monoacylglycerol from the glycerolysis of soybean oil catalyzed by alkaline ionic liquid was investigated as an alternative to the industrial glycerolysis promoted on environmentally
Production of monoglycerides by glycerolysis of olive oil with immobilized lipases: effect of the water activity
The production of monoglycerides by glycerolysis of olive oil catalyzed by lipases from Candida rugosa, Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus sp. immobilized in a hydrophylic polyurethane foam was
Base Catalyzed Glycerolysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: Investigations Towards the Development of a Continuous Process
The base catalyzed glycerolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) has been investigated in this work with the aim to develop a continuous process for this reaction. Monoand diglycerides are the main
Synthesis of monoglycerides by glycerolysis of rapeseed oil using immobilized lipase
Reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoglycerides (MG) by enzyme-catalyzed glycerolysis of rapeseed oil using Lipozyme® IM have been studied. Silica gel was used to adsorb the glycerol to
The effects of interesterification on the physical properties of fats.
The physical properties of a fat or oil depend on its inherent triacyglycerol (TAG) structure, that is, its fatty acid composition and stereospecific positional distribution. Modification of a
High-yield enzymatic glycerolysis of fats and oils
Several triglyceride fats and oils were reacted with glycerol using lipase as catalyst. A batch system with magnetic stirring was used without the addition of any solvents or emulsifiers. In all
Monoglycerides and Diglycerides Synthesis in a Solvent-Free System by Lipase-Catalyzed Glycerolysis
Five lipases were screened to study their ability to produce monoglycerides and diglycerides through enzymatic glycerolysis of soybean oil and found the best DG and MG productions were in the range 45–48% and 28–30% (w/w, based on the total oil), respectively.


Modification of vegetable oils
Summary1.An investigation has been made of the composition of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides formed by the reaction of hydrogenated cottonseed oil with glycerol in the presence of an
Modification of vegetable oils
SummaryFrom the analysis of several series of hydrogenated cottonseed, soybean, and linseed oils, made by the spectral and other methods, estimates have been made of the relative readiness of
Relative esterifiability of the primary and secondary hydroxyl groups of glycerol
A method has been devised for determining the relative esterifiability of the primary and secondary hydroxyl groups of glycerol and it is suggested that this method should be applicable to other polyols.
Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of monoglycerides as their trimethylsilyl ether derivatives
A quantitative method is described for the rapid gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of monoglycerides of long chain fatty acids as their trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives. The TMS derivatives
Determination of glycerol by oxidation with periodic acid
SummaryAn acidimetric procedure for the determination of glycerol following oxidation with periodic acid has been described. This procedure has been successfully applied to C. P. grade glycerin,
Appraisal of methods of total monoester estimation in commercial monoglycerides
Analytical techniques of estimating total monoglycerides in industrial products and difficulties encountered in their estimation are critically discussed. A modification is suggested of a recently