Glycerolipids constituting the matrix of photosynthetic membranes, from cyanobacteria to chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells, comprise monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. This review covers our current knowledge on the structural and functional features of these lipids in various cellular models, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Their relative proportions in thylakoid membranes result from highly regulated and compartmentalized metabolic pathways, with a cooperation, in the case of eukaryotes, of non-plastidic compartments. This review also focuses on the role of each of these thylakoid glycerolipids in stabilizing protein complexes of the photosynthetic machinery, which might be one of the reasons for their fascinating conservation in the course of evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components.