Higher sterol content regulated by CYP51 with concomitant lower phospholipid content in membranes is a common strategy for aluminium tolerance in several plant species
Membranes of plant organelles have specific glycerolipid compositions. Selective distribution of lipids at the levels of subcellular organelles, membrane leaflets and membrane domains reflects a complex and finely tuned lipid homeostasis. Glycerolipid neosynthesis occurs mainly in plastid envelope and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Since most lipids are not only present in the membranes where they are synthesized, one cannot explain membrane specific lipid distribution by metabolic processes confined in each membrane compartment. In this review, we present our current understanding of glycerolipid trafficking in plant cells. We examine the potential mechanisms involved in lipid transport inside bilayers and from one membrane to another. We survey lipid transfers going through vesicular membrane flow and those dependent on lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites. By introducing recently described membrane lipid reorganization during phosphate deprivation and recent developments issued from mutant analyses, we detail the specific lipid transfers towards or outwards the chloroplast envelope.