Effect of Exposure of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to High, versus Normal, Glucose on Subsequent Lipid Accumulation from Glycated and Acetylated Low-Density Lipoproteins
Nonenzymatic covalent binding (glycation) of reactive aldehydes (from glucose or metabolic processes) to low-density lipoproteins has been previously shown to result in lipid accumulation in a murine macrophage cell line. The formation of such lipid-laden cells is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. In this study, we characterize lipid accumulation in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, which are cells of immediate relevance to human atherosclerosis, on exposure to low-density lipoprotein glycated using methylglyoxal or glycolaldehyde. The time course of cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived lipids and protein has been characterized, together with the subsequent turnover of the modified apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) protein. Cholesterol and cholesteryl ester accumulation occurs within 24 h of exposure to glycated low-density lipoprotein, and increases in a time-dependent manner. Higher cellular cholesteryl ester levels were detected with glycolaldehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein than with methylglyoxal-modified low-density lipoprotein. Uptake was significantly decreased by fucoidin (an inhibitor of scavenger receptor SR-A) and a mAb to CD36. Human monocyte-derived macrophages endocytosed and degraded significantly more (125)I-labeled apoB from glycolaldehyde-modified than from methylglyoxal-modified, or control, low-density lipoprotein. Differences in the endocytic and degradation rates resulted in net intracellular accumulation of modified apoB from glycolaldehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein. Accumulation of lipid therefore parallels increased endocytosis and, to a lesser extent, degradation of apoB in human macrophages exposed to glycolaldehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein. This accumulation of cholesteryl esters and modified protein from glycated low-density lipoprotein may contribute to cellular dysfunction and the increased atherosclerosis observed in people with diabetes, and other pathologies linked to exposure to reactive carbonyls.