We describe the second case of CD8 immunodeficiency. It confirms the pathogenic effect of p.Gly111Ser, leading to complete deficit of CD8+ lymphocytes, although the clinical manifestations may vary in severity. Similarly to the first case reported, our patient is also from Spanish Gypsy origin and homozygous for the p.Gly111Ser mutation in CD8alpha chain. The patient has suffered repeated respiratory infections from childhood but with conservation of her pulmonary parenchyma, on the contrary to the first patient, who died because of his respiratory injury. We developed an AluI-PCR-RFLP assay to screen a total of 1127 unrelated control individuals: 734 subjects of Gypsy ancestry from different sub-isolates and geographic locations in Europe, and 393 of Spanish (non-Gypsy) ethnicity. The results indicate that p.Gly111Ser is confined to the Spanish Gypsy population, where it occurs at a carrier rate of 0.4%. Analysis of microsatellite markers flanking the CD8A mutated gene revealed a shared polymorphic haplotype suggesting a common founder for p.Gly111Ser mutation that causes CD8 deficiency in the Spanish Gypsy population. CD8 immunodeficiency should be given diagnostic consideration in Spanish Gypsies with recurrent infections. Our findings may also have implications for these patients in terms of specific recommendations in vaccination and healthy habits and for genetic counseling of affected families.