Glutamic acid 242 is a valve in the proton pump of cytochrome c oxidase.

@article{Kaila2008GlutamicA2,
  title={Glutamic acid 242 is a valve in the proton pump of cytochrome c oxidase.},
  author={Ville R. I. Kaila and Michael I. Verkhovsky and Gerhard Hummer and M{\aa}rten Wikstr{\"o}m},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2008},
  volume={105 17},
  pages={
          6255-9
        }
}
Aerobic life is based on a molecular machinery that utilizes oxygen as a terminal electron sink. The membrane-bound cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water in mitochondria and many bacteria. The energy released in this reaction is conserved by pumping protons across the mitochondrial or bacterial membrane, creating an electrochemical proton gradient that drives production of ATP. A crucial question is how the protons pumped by CcO are prevented from flowing… CONTINUE READING

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